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ज्ञातः mNs

Today we will look at the form ज्ञातः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.9.36.

ऋषिमाद्यं न बध्नाति पापीयांस्त्वां रजोगुणः । यन्मनो मयि निर्बद्धं प्रजाः संसृजतोऽपि ते ।। ३-९-३५ ।।
ज्ञातोऽहं भवता त्वद्य दुर्विज्ञेयोऽपि देहिनाम् । यन्मां त्वं मन्यसेऽयुक्तं भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मभिः ।। ३-९-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अनुग्रहमेवाह – ऋषिमिति चतुर्भिः । यत् यतस्ते मनो मयि निर्बद्धम् ।। ३५ ।। यद्यस्माद्भूतैरिन्द्रियैर्गुणैः सत्त्वादिभिरात्मनाऽहंकारेण चायुक्तं मन्यसे ।। ३६ ।।

Gita Press translation – The wicked Rajoguṇa (the principle of activity) will not bind you, the first seer, since your mind will remain attached to Me even while you are occupied with the work of evolving the creation (35). Today you have come to know Me, even though living beings find it difficult to know Me; for you regard Me as free from the five elements, the Indriyas, the Guṇas and the inner sense (36).

Note: The translation has been done in the active voice – “Today you have come to know Me.” The literal translation would be “Today I have come to be known by you.”

“ज्ञात” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३).

(1) ज्ञा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) ज्ञा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

“ज्ञात” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) ज्ञात + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) ज्ञात + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) ज्ञातः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञात’ been used?

2. Can you recall three सूत्राणि (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-99 उपसर्गे च संज्ञायाम् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकार-लोप: in the form ‘बद्ध’?

5. Which कृत्य-प्रत्यय: is used to form the प्रतिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञेय’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one knew this secret.” Paraphrase to “This secret was not known by anyone.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रहस्य’ (in the neuter) for ‘secret.’

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In the last verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञात’ been used?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञात’ has been used in the form ज्ञातेन (नपुंसकलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the last verse of Chapter Ten of the गीता –
    अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन |
    विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत्‌ || 10-42||

    2. Can you recall three सूत्राणि (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३)?
    Answer: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३) in the following सूत्राणि –
    1-3-57 ज्ञाश्रुस्मृदृशां सनः – A आत्मनेपदम् affix is used after a desiderative form of any of the following verbal roots – √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३), √श्रु (श्रु श्रवणे १. १०९२), √स्मृ (स्मृ चिन्तायाम् १. १०८२) or √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

    1-3-76 अनुपसर्गाज्ज्ञः – When not preceded by a उपसर्गः, the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३) takes a आत्मनेपदम् affix when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent.

    7-3-79 ज्ञाजनोर्जा – The verbal roots √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३) and √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) are substituted by “जा” when followed by a शित्-प्रत्ययः ।

    3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः – The affix “क” may be used following
    i) a verbal root which has a penultimate इक् letter
    ii) the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३), √प्री (प्रीञ् तर्पणे कान्तौ च ९. २) or √कॄ (कॄ विक्षेपे (निक्षेपे) ६. १४५)

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-99 उपसर्गे च संज्ञायाम् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-2-99 उपसर्गे च संज्ञायाम् has been used in the form प्रजाः।
    Please see the following post for the derivation – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/11/12/प्रजाः-fap/

    4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकार-लोप: in the form ‘बद्ध’?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति is used for the नकार-लोप: in the form ‘बद्ध’ derived from the verbal root √बन्ध् (क्रयादि-गणः, बन्धँ बन्धने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४४).

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बद्ध’ is derived as follows:
    बन्ध् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा, 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा। Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः।
    = बन्ध् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = बध् + त । By 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति – The penultimate नकारः of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have इकारः as a marker, takes लोपः when followed by an affix that has ककारः or ङकारः as a marker. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ is a कित्।This allows 6-4-24 to apply.
    = बध् + ध । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः।
    = बद्ध । By 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि।

    ‘बद्ध’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    5. Which कृत्य-प्रत्यय: is used to form the प्रतिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञेय’?
    Answer: The कृत्य-प्रत्यय: ‘यत्’ – prescribed by 3-1-97 अचो यत्‌ – is used to form the प्रतिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञेय’ from √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३).
    Please see the answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the प्रतिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञेय’ –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/09/10/ध्येयम्-nns/#comment-4462

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “No one knew this secret.” Paraphrase to “This secret was not known by anyone.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रहस्य’ (in the neuter) for ‘secret.’
    इदम् रहस्यम् न केन अपि ज्ञातम् । = इदं रहस्यं न केनापि ज्ञातम् ।

    Easy Questions:

    1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ‘श्यन्’ has been used in the form मन्यसे।
    The derivation of the form मन्यसे is shown in answer to question 1 of the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/06/29/जगदिषे-2ps-लिँट्/#comment-3938

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य has been used in the form भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मभिः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मन्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मन् + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा……..। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “भिस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्म + भिस् । The ending letter “न्” of the प्रातिपदिकम् “भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मन्” (which has पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने) is dropped by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य। Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this नकार-लोपः (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form “भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्म” is not visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। Therefore 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् does not apply.
    Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the नकार-लोपः (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others will see the नकार-लोपः।
    The four categories are:
    1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
    2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
    3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
    4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
    Since the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् prescribes a सुँब्विधिः, the नकार-लोपः done by 8-2-7 remains असिद्धः in the eyes of 7-1-9.
    = भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

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