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याति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form याति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10-46-32.

यस्मिञ्जनः प्राणवियोगकाले क्षणं समावेश्य मनोऽविशुद्धम् ।
निर्हृत्य कर्माशयमाशु याति परां गतिं ब्रह्ममयोऽर्कवर्णः ।। १०-४६-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Focussing (even) one’s impure mind on Śrī Kṛṣṇa (merely) for an instant at the time of death one speedily attains the supreme goal, burning the store of Karma and becoming one with Brahma (the Absolute) and attaining a form consisting of Sattva unmixed with Rajas and Tamas.”

याति is derived from the धातुः √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √या-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √या-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √या-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) या + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) या + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) या + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) या + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) या + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) याति । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

Questions:

1. Where is याति used in Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “speedily”?

3. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। In this verse the word “समावेश्य” as well as “निर्हृत्य” ends in ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:। Who is the common doer(s) and what is his/her later action?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man who doesn’t hate anyone goes to the supreme goal.” Use √द्विष् (द्विषँ अप्रीतौ २. ३) for “to hate.” Use some words from the verse for “goes to the supreme goal.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Where should I go?” “Go home quickly.” Use a अव्ययम् from the verse for “quickly (speedily.)”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“O Lord! Protect me.” Use √पा (पा रक्षणे २. ५१) for “to protect.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “भगवत्” for “Lord.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used in the verse?

2. By which सूत्रम् has the ङि-प्रत्यय: (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) been replaced by “स्मिन्” in the form “यस्मिन्”?


1 Comment

  1. Questions:
    1. Where is याति used in Chapter Six of the गीता?
    Answer: प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिषः |
    अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम्‌ || 6-45||

    2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “speedily”?
    Answer: अव्ययम् “आशु” used in the verse has been translated to “speedily”.

    3. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। In this verse the word “समावेश्य” as well as “निर्हृत्य” ends in ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:। Who is the common doer(s) and what is his/her later action?
    Answer: The common doer is जनः (some person). His latter action is याति (attains).

    4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “A man who doesn’t hate anyone goes to the supreme goal.” Use √द्विष् (द्विषँ अप्रीतौ २. ३) for “to hate.” Use some words from the verse for “goes to the supreme goal.”
    Answer: यः जनः/नरः न कम् अपि द्वेष्टि सः पराम् गतिम् याति । = यो जनो/नरो न कमपि द्वेष्टि स परां गतिं याति ।

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Where should I go?” “Go home quickly.” Use a अव्ययम् from the verse for “quickly (speedily.)”
    Answer: कुत्र यायाम् ।
    गृहम् आशु याहि = गृहमाशु याहि ।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “O Lord! Protect me.” Use √पा (पा रक्षणे २. ५१) for “to protect.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “भगवत्” for “Lord.”
    Answer: हे भगवन् माम् पाहि = हे भगवन् मां पाहि ।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used in the verse?
    Answer: 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः has been used in the सन्धि-कार्यम् between यस्मिन्, जनः resulting in the form यस्मिञ्जनः ।
    यस्मिन् + जनः = यस्मिञ्जनः । नकारः changed to ञकारः by 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः

    2. By which सूत्रम् has the ङि-प्रत्यय: (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) been replaced by “स्मिन्” in the form “यस्मिन्”?
    Answer: 7-1-15 ङसिङ्योः स्मात्स्मिनौ replaces ङि-प्रत्यय: with स्मिन् in the form “यस्मिन्” (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “यद्”, पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)।
    यद् + ङि । 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…..।
    = य अ + ङि । 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः, the ending letter (see 1-1-52) of the pronouns, starting with “त्यद्” and ending with “द्वि”, is replaced by “अ” when followed by a विभक्ति: affix.
    = य + ङि । 6-1-97 अतो गुणे gives पररूपम् as एकादेशः।
    = यस्मिन् । 7-1-15 ङसिङ्योः स्मात्स्मिनौ, following a pronoun ending in “अ”, the affixes ङसि and ङि are replaced respectively by स्मात् and स्मिन् ।

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