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भवसि 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form भवसि 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

का त्वं भवसि रुद्राणां मरुतां वा वरानने ।
वसूनां वा वरारोहे देवता प्रतिभासि मे ।। ५-३३-६।।

Gita Press translation “Who are you among the (eleven) Rudras (the gods of destruction), the (forty-nine) wind-gods and the (eight) Vasus, O lady of exquisite features? (For) to me you appear to be a goddess O lady of excellent limbs!”

भवसि is derived from the धातुः √भू (भू सत्तायाम्, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१.१)

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the भू-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the भू-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So भू-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) भू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) भू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भू + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा(s1) by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) भू + शप् + सिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा(s1) by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) भो + शप् + सिप् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(6) भो + अ + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) भवसि । “अव्”-आदेश: by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Does the लँट्-प्रत्यय: get the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. In the third chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, पाणिनि: runs the “धातो:” अधिकार: from two points. One is from 3-1-91 धातोः। Where is the other one?

3. Why is only a final इक् letter subject to गुणादेश: by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः? (Why not any final अच्?)

4. What can we say about the subject (“कर्तृ”) of the verb भवसि?
a) The subject has to be भवान्/भवती।
b) The subject has to be त्वम्।
c) The subject has to be either त्वम् or भवान्/भवती।
d) There are many possibilities for the subject, besides त्वम् and भवान्/भवती।

5. What would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been उत्तमपुरुष-एकवचनम्? (Use 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि)।

6. Can you spot a term from the चादि-गण: (ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे) in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many tigers roam in this forest.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “शार्दूल” for tiger and use the धातु: “अट्” (from the भ्वादि-गण:) for “roam.” It is listed in the धातुपाठ: as “अटँ गतौ” १.३३२

8. Please list the three synonyms for “वरारोहा” (प्रातिपदिकम् “वरारोहा” – this is a बहुव्रीहि-समास: – an adjective used here in the feminine – meaning is “an elegant or beautiful woman”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
वरारोहा मत्तकाशिन्युत्तमा वरवर्णिनी ।।२-६-४।।
(इति चत्वारि “अत्यन्तोत्कृष्टस्त्रिया:” नामानि)।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used in the verse?

2. Derive the form “का” (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”।


1 Comment

  1. Questions:
    1. Does the लँट्-प्रत्यय: get the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा?
    Answer: No. सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा is defined by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्। लँट् is neither a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: nor does it have शकारः as an इत् – so it does not get the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा ।

    2. In the third chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, पाणिनि: runs the “धातो:” अधिकार: from two points. One is from 3-1-91 धातोः। Where is the other one?
    Answer:The other (prior) one starts from 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् ।
    The reason for not running the धात्वाधिकारः all the way through is to allow the rules 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌, 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् and 3-1-94 वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् to apply only for the सूत्राणि starting from 3-1-91 onwards. These three rules (3-1-92, 3-1-93 and 3-1-94) will not apply to prior “धातो:” अधिकार: which goes from 3-1-22 to 3-1-90.
    So, for example, if 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् were to apply to the prior section (3-1-22 to 3-1-90) also, then any प्रत्यय: (which is not a तिङ्-प्रत्यय:) from that section would also get the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा। And after adding that प्रत्यय: we would create a प्रातिपदिकम् as per 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and that प्रातिपदिकम् would have to be declined as per 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा… This is undesirable. In order to avoid this, पाणिनि: starts a second “धातो:” अधिकार: from 3-1-91 to make sure that 3-1-92, 3-1-93 and 3-1-94 don’t apply to the rules prior to 3-1-91.

    3. Why is only a final इक् letter subject to गुणादेश: by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः? (Why not any final अच्?)
    Answer: : By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी, when a गुण: or वृद्धि: is prescribed, using the specific term “गुण” or “वृद्धि”, then, (in the absence of a specified स्थानी or place of operation) the term “इक:” – which is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of “इक्” – will be understood to be present (to denote the स्थानी)।

    4. What can we say about the subject (“कर्तृ”) of the verb भवसि?
    a) The subject has to be भवान्/भवती।
    b) The subject has to be त्वम्।
    c) The subject has to be either त्वम् or भवान्/भवती।
    d) There are many possibilities for the subject, besides त्वम् and भवान्/भवती।

    Answer: b) The subject has to be त्वम्। There is no other possibility.
    By 1-4-105 युष्मद्युपपदे समानाधिकरणे स्थानिन्यपि मध्यमः, when the युष्मद्-शब्दः (either understood or expressed) is the word that is in agreement with the verb, a मध्यम-पुरुष-प्रत्यय: is used.

    If भवान्/भवती were the subject, then by 1-4-108 शेषे प्रथमः, the प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम् (third person singular affix) would have to be used. The correct verb form would be भवति।

    5. What would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been उत्तमपुरुष-एकवचनम्? (Use 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि)।
    Answer: The final form would be “भवामि” if the विवक्षा had been उत्तमपुरुष-एकवचनम् ।
    भू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्
    भू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    भू + मिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “मिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्।
    भू + शप् + मिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप् ।
    भो + शप् + मिप् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः ।
    भो + अ + मि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    भव + मि । “अव्”-आदेश: by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    भवामि । 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि – The ending अकार: of a अङ्गम् is elongated if it is followed by a सर्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

    6. Can you spot a term from the चादि-गण: (ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे) in the verse?
    Answer: “वा” from the चादि-गण: is used in this verse.

    7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Many tigers roam in this forest.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “शार्दूल” for tiger and use the धातु: “अट्” (from the भ्वादि-गण:) for “roam.” It is listed in the धातुपाठ: as “अटँ गतौ” १.३३२
    Answer: अस्मिन् वने बहवः शार्दूलाः अटन्ति = अस्मिन्वने बहवः शार्दूला अटन्ति।

    8. Please list the three synonyms for “वरारोहा” (प्रातिपदिकम् “वरारोहा” – this is a बहुव्रीहि-समास: – an adjective used here in the feminine – meaning is “an elegant or beautiful woman”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
    वरारोहा मत्तकाशिन्युत्तमा वरवर्णिनी ।।२-६-४।।
    (इति चत्वारि “अत्यन्तोत्कृष्टस्त्रिया:” नामानि)।
    Answer:
    मत्तकाशिनी (प्रातिपदिकम् “मत्तकाशिनी”)
    उत्तमा (प्रातिपदिकम् “उत्तमा”)
    वरवर्णिनी (प्रातिपदिकम् “वरवर्णिनी”)
    All are feminine.

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used in the verse?
    Answer: In the form रुद्राणाम्, प्रातिपदिकम् “रुद्र” and वसूनाम्, प्रातिपदिकम् “वसु”, षष्ठी-विभक्तिः बहुवचनम्।
    रुद्र + आम् (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…)
    रुद्र + नुँट् आम् (7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ)
    रुद्र + नाम् (1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः, 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः)
    रुद्रा + नाम् (6-4-3 नामि)
    रुद्राणाम् (8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि)

    Same steps (except for 8-4-2) will apply for वसूनाम् also.

    2. Derive the form “का” (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”।
    Answer: किम् + सुँ । 4-1-2 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्यां….।
    क + स् । 7-2-103 किमः कः, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    क + टाप् + स् । 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्, the प्रत्यय: टाप् is added because we’re deriving a feminine form.
    क + आ + स् । 1-3-7 चुटू , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः. ।
    का + स् । 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।
    का । 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात् सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् ।

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