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निराशिषः mNp

Today we will look at the form निराशिषः from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 8-12-6

तवैव चरणाम्भोजं श्रेयस्कामा निराशिषः ।
विसृज्योभयतः सङ्गं मुनयः समुपासते ।। ८-१२-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Sages seeking blessedness and devoid of all (other) aspirations duly worship Your lotus-feet alone, giving up attachment to both (this and the other world).”

The प्रातिपदिकम् “निराशिस्” is a समास: (compound) formed by using the अव्ययम् निर्/निस् and the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “आशिस्”। It is an adjective. The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्
Note: The  ending सकार: of “निराशिस्” comes from the धातु: “शास्” (for details see वार्तिकम् under 6-4-34 शास इदङ्हलोः।)

Being a समासः, by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च, “निराशिस्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा and the सुँप्-प्रत्ययाः are ordained after it by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…

(1) निराशिस् + जस् ।

(2) निराशिस् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) निराशिस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(4) निराशिष: । By 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च, the सकारः of the धातु: “शास्” gets षकारः as a replacement since it is preceded by an इण् letter।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used in this verse?

2. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used? Was an alternate form possible?

3. Can you spot the word in the verse which ends in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:? (Ref. 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले, 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। Who is (are) the common doer(s)? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?

4. This same word (answer to question 3) ending in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय: comes in the last verse of a chapter in the गीता। Which chapter is that? Who is (are) the common doer(s) there? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?

5. Why couldn’t the usual सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः be used in step 4?

6. Please list the three synonyms for the word “चरण:/चरणम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “चरण” masculine/neuter, meaning “foot”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
पादः पदङ्घ्रिश्चरणोऽस्त्रियाम् ।।२-६-७१।।
(इति चत्वारि “चरणस्य” नामानि)

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man has two feet, but a lion has four.” Use the षष्ठी विभक्ति: to express the meaning of “has.”

8. In the commentary on the सूत्रम् 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च, the काशिका says – इण्को: इत्येव, शास्ति। Please explain what this means.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get विसृज्य + उभयतः = विसृज्योभयतः ?

2. Derive the form सङ्गम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “सङ्ग” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।


1 Comment

  1. Questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used in this verse?
    In मुनयः, प्रातिपदिकम् “मुनि”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।
    मुनि + जस् । 4-1-2 स्वौज…..।
    मुनि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।
    मुने + अस् । 7-3-109 जसि च, when the affix जस् follows, there is a गुण: substitute for the (ending letter of) of an अङ्गम् ending in a short vowel. (‘इ’ is substituted by ‘ए’)
    मुनय्+ अस् । 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    मुनयः । Applying रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः.।

    2. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used? Was an alternate form possible?
    तव, युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी विभक्ति: एकवचनम् । The alternate form ते cannot be used because there is no पदम् that precedes तव and तव is at the beginning of the metrical पादः। (Ref. – 8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य।)

    3. Can you spot the word in the verse which ends in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:? (Ref. 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले, 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। Who is (are) the common doer(s)? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?
    विसृज्य (giving up) ends in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय । The common doers are मुनयः (sages). Their later action is समुपासते (duly worship) ।

    4. This same word (answer to question 3) ending in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय: comes in the last verse of a chapter in the गीता। Which chapter is that? Who is (are) the common doer(s) there? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?
    विसृज्य comes in verse 47 (last verse) of Chapter 1. The common doer is अर्जुनः, and his later action उपाविशत् (sat down)।

    एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् |
    विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः || 1-47||

    5. Why couldn’t the usual सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः be used in step 4?
    By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः the letter स् is replaced by the cerebral ष् when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: (इ उ ऋ ऌ ए ओ ऐ औ ह् य् व् र् ल् ) or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्). This substitution only takes place if the स् is an आदेश: or part of a प्रत्यय:।
    Here the letter स् is not an आदेश: nor a part of a प्रत्ययः – it is part of the धातु: “शास्”। Hence the सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः cannot be applied.

    6. Please list the three synonyms for the word “चरण:/चरणम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “चरण” masculine/neuter, meaning “foot”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
    पादः पदङ्घ्रिश्चरणोऽस्त्रियाम् ।।२-६-७१।।
    (इति चत्वारि “चरणस्य” नामानि)
    1. पादः (प्रातिपदिकम् “पाद”,masculine)
    2. पत् (प्रातिपदिकम् “पद्”, masculine)*
    3. अङ्घ्रिः (प्रातिपदिकम् “अङ्घ्रि”,masculine)

    *According to some grammarians, there is no independent प्रातिपदिकम् “पद्”। “पद्” can only be used as an (optional) substitute for the प्रातिपदिकम् “पाद” in the accusative plural onwards. (Ref. 6-1-63 पद्दन्नोमास्हृन्निशसन्यूषन्दोषन्यकञ्छकन्नुदन्नासञ्छस्प्रभृतिषु।)

    7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “A man has two feet, but a lion has four.” Use the षष्ठी विभक्ति: to express the meaning of “has.”
    नरस्य द्वौ पादौ परन्तु सिंहस्य चत्वारः (पादाः)= नरस्य द्वौ पादौ परन्तु सिंहस्य चत्वारः (पादाः)।

    8. In the commentary on the सूत्रम् 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च, the काशिका says – इण्को: इत्येव, शास्ति। Please explain what this means.
    By 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च the सकारः of the धातु: “शास्”, “वस्” or “घस्” gets षकारः as a replacement when preceded by an इण् letter or a consonant of the क-वर्गः। “इण्को: इत्येव, शास्ति” means that this rule only applies when an इण् letter or a consonant of the क-वर्गः precedes the सकार:। An example to illustrate the point is “शास्ति”। Here even though the सकार: belongs to the धातु: “शास्” (which is listed in 8-3-60) still it does not take the षकारादेश: because the preceding letter is the आकार: which is neither an इण् letter (इ उ ऋ ऌ ए ओ ऐ औ ह् य् व् र् ल् ) nor a consonant of the क-वर्गः (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्)।

    Easy questions:

    1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get विसृज्य + उभयतः = विसृज्योभयतः ?
    6-1-87 आद्गुणः।

    2. Derive the form सङ्गम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “सङ्ग” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।
    सङ्ग + अम् (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा…)
    सङ्गम् (6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः)

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