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ऋत्विग्भिः mIp

Today we will look at the form ऋत्विग्भिः from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 9-13-3.

निमिश्चलमिदं विद्वान् सत्रमारभतात्मवान् ।
ऋत्विग्भिरपरैस्तावन्नागमद् यावता गुरुः ।। ९-१३-३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Knowing all this (his life and everything connected with it) to be evanescent, the thoughtful Nimi proceeded with the sacrificial session with the help of other priests and continued it till his preceptor (the sage Vasiṣṭha) did not return.”

By 3-2-59 ऋत्विग्दधृक्स्रग्दिगुष्णिगञ्चुयुजिक्रुञ्चां च we get “ऋत्विज्” as a ready-made प्रातिपदिकम्, ending in the क्विन्-प्रत्यय:। By अनुबन्ध-लोपः the ककार: and नकार: are removed using 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् along with 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The इकारः in the क्विन्-प्रत्यय: is उच्चारणार्थः। The single letter वकार: that remains gets अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः। By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, this वकार: which is अपृक्तः takes लोपः।

The क्विन्-प्रत्यय: has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् । By 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, even though the क्विन्-प्रत्ययः has taken लोपः, ऋत्विज् gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and hence it will take the affixes सुँ, औ, जस् etc. mandated by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। The विवक्षा here is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्

(1) ऋत्विज् + भिस् । The अङ्गम् has पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनमस्थाने। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of भिस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(2) ऋत्विग् + भिस् । Since ‘ऋत्विज्’ ends in the affix क्विन्, by 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः, ‘ऋत्विज्’ which has पद-सञ्ज्ञा, takes the कवर्ग: (in this case गकार:) as a replacement for its ending जकार:।

(3) ऋत्विग्भिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Why do we need to use 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः in step 2? Why not simply use 8-2-30 चोः कुः?

2. In the third chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, why does पाणिनि: run the “धातो:” अधिकार: a second time starting from 3-1-91 धातोः ? Why not just let the prior “धातो:” अधिकार: (starting from 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ्।) run all the way through?

3. Please state the one synonym for the word ऋत्विक् (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋत्विज्” masculine, meaning “a priest who officiates at a sacrifice”) as given in the अमर-कोश:।
ऋत्विजो याजकाश्च ते ।।२-७-१७।।

4. How do you say this in Sanskrit?
“What else?” Take the answer from Chapter 16 of the गीता।

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-24 अतोऽम् been used in this verse?

6. What would have been the problem if पाणिनि: did not say “अतिङ्” in the सूत्रम् 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् ?

7. Which सर्वनाम-शब्द: has been used in this verse?

8. Which word in the verse has समानाधिकरम् with the word “ऋत्विग्भिः”?

9. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य) which we have studied, in which पाणिनि: uses the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा ?

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of निमिश्चलम्।

2. Can you spot the place where the सूत्रम् 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा has been used in this verse?


2 Comments

  1. Questions:

    3. Please state the one synonym for the word ऋत्विक् (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋत्विज्” masculine, meaning “a priest who officiates at a sacrifice”) as given in the अमर-कोश:।
    ऋत्विजो याजकाश्च ते ।।२-७-१७।।
    Answer: याजकः।

    7. Which सर्वनाम-शब्द: has been used in this verse?
    Answer: इदम् , प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्”, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
    इदम् + अम् (7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌) = इदम्।
    (By 1-1-63 न लुमताऽङ्गस्य, any further operations on the अङ्गम् are stopped.)

    Easy questions:

    1. Please do पदच्छेद: of निमिश्चलम्।
    The पदच्छेदः is निमिः, चलम्।
    निमिस् + चलम् = निमिर् + चलम् (8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः) = निमिः + चलम् (8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः) = निमिस् + चलम् (8-3-34 विसर्जनीयस्य सः) = निमिश्चलम् ( 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः)

    2. Can you spot the place where the सूत्रम् 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा has been used in this verse?
    Between तावन्न।
    The पदच्छेदः is तावत्, न।
    तावत् + न = तावद् + न (8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते) = तावन्न (8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा)

  2. Questions:
    1. The प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋत्विज्” is formed using the उपपदम् “ऋतु” and the धातु: “यज्”। The धातु: “यज्” is specifically listed in 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः। So in the case of the धातु: “यज्” 8-2-36 is an अपवाद: for 8-2-30 चोः कुः। In the absence of 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः, the ending जकार: of ऋत्विज् would have become a षकार: because 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः would have over-ruled 8-2-30. This would have been undesirable. That’s why we need 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः।

    2. In the third chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, why does पाणिनि: run the “धातो:” अधिकार: a second time starting from 3-1-91 धातोः ? Why not just let the prior “धातो:” अधिकार: (starting from 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ्।) run all the way through?
    पाणिनि: runs the “धातो:” अधिकार: a second time starting from 3-1-91 धातोः so that the rules 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌, 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् and 3-1-94 वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् can apply only for the सूत्राणि starting from 3-1-91 onwards. These three rules (3-1-92, 3-1-93 and 3-1-94) will not apply to prior “धातो:” अधिकार: which goes from 3-1-22 to 3-1-90.
    So, for example, if 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् were to apply to the prior section (3-1-22 to 3-1-90) also, then any प्रत्यय: (which is not a तिङ्-प्रत्यय:) from that section would also get the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा। And after adding that प्रत्यय: we would create a प्रातिपदिकम् as per 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and that प्रातिपदिकम् would have to be declined as per 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा… This is undesirable. In order to avoid this, पाणिनि: starts a second “धातो:” अधिकार: from 3-1-91 to make sure that 3-1-92, 3-1-93 and 3-1-94 don’t apply to the rules prior to 3-1-91.

    3. Please state the one synonym for the word ऋत्विक् (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋत्विज्” masculine, meaning “a priest who officiates at a sacrifice”) as given in the अमर-कोश:।
    ऋत्विजो याजकाश्च ते ।।२-७-१७।।
    याजकः (प्रातिपदिकम् “याजक” masculine)

    4. How do you say this in Sanskrit?
    “What else?” Take the answer from Chapter 16 of the गीता।
    किम् अन्यत् = किमन्यत् ? (गीता 16-8)

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-24 अतोऽम् been used in this verse?
    In the form चलम् , प्रातिपदिकम् “चल”, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
    चल + अम् (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा…) = चल + अम् (7-1-24 अतोऽम्) = चलम् (6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः)
    Similarly in सत्रम्।

    6. What would have been the problem if पाणिनि: did not say “अतिङ्” in the सूत्रम् 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् ?
    Even though the तिङ्प्रत्ययाः (ref. 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्) are under the “धातो:” अधिकारः of 3-1-91 धातोः, by saying “अतिङ्” in the सूत्रम् 3-1-93, the तिङ्प्रत्ययाः are prevented from getting the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा। Because getting कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा would cause them to get प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This would have required a सुँप्-प्रत्यय: to be used with a तिङन्त-पदम् giving rise to undesirable forms like भवतिः, पठतिः, पठन्तुः । To avoid this undesirable consequence, पाणिनि: has put “अतिङ्” in the सूत्रम् 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्।

    7. Which सर्वनाम-शब्द: has been used in this verse?
    इदम्।

    8. Which word in the verse has समानाधिकरम् with the word “ऋत्विग्भिः”?
    अपरैः (प्रातिपदिकम् “अपर”, पुंल्लिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)
    अपर + भिस् (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा…) = अपर + ऐस् (7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस्) = अपरैस् (6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि) = अपरैर् (8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः) = अपरैः (8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः)

    9. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य) which we have studied, in which पाणिनि: uses the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा ?
    6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात् सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्।

    Easy questions:
    2. Can you spot the place where the सूत्रम् 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा has been used in this verse?
    तावत् न = तावद् न ( 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते) = तावन्न (8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा)

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