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पञ्चभिः fIp

Today we will look at the form पञ्चभिः from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

ततस्ताराद्युतिस्तारो हरिर्भीमपराक्रम: |
पञ्चभिर्हरिकोटीभिर्दूरतः पर्यदृश्यत || ४-३९-३१ ||

GitaPress translation “Then came to view from a distance the monkey, Tāra of terrible prowess, who possessed the brilliance of a star, followed by five crores of monkeys.”

‘पञ्चन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पञ्चन्’

(1) पञ्चन् + भिस् । पञ्चन् has पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनमस्थाने। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of भिस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(2) पञ्च + भिस् । The ending letter न् of पञ्चन् (which has पद-सञ्ज्ञा and प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा) is dropped by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य
See question 1.

(3) पञ्चभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Why didn’t 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply after step 2?

2. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्” used in the गीता?

3. Can you think of an English word that (most likely) comes from the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्”?

4. Of the 21 सुँप्-प्रत्यया: which ones can be used with the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्”?

5. Which of the following statements is true regarding the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्”?
a) It is always used in the feminine gender – regardless of whether it is qualifying a noun in another gender.
b) It is an अव्ययम्।
c) It can be used in all three genders but the forms are the same regardless of the gender.
d) Just like the प्रातिपदिकम् “त्रि” or “चतुर्” it can be used in all three genders and the forms are different in each gender.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Five days of the New Year have gone by.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “गत” for “have gone by.”

7. Please list the five synonyms for the word “तारा” (प्रातिपदिकम् “तारा” feminine, meaning “star”) as given in the अमर-कोश:।
नक्षत्रमृक्षं भं तारा तारकाऽप्युडु वा स्त्रियाम् ।।१-३-२१।।
(इति षट् “नक्षत्रसामान्यस्य” नामानि)

8. In which पाद: of the अष्टाध्यायी do we find most of the rules required for अच्-सन्धि: ?

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get परि + अदृश्यत = पर्यदृश्यत ?

2. Can you spot a place in the verse where the सूत्रम् 8-3-34 विसर्जनीयस्य सः has been used?


2 Comments

  1. Questions:

    2. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्” used in the गीता?
    पञ्च (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् chapter 13, verse 6)
    महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च |
    इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः || 13-6||

    पञ्चैतानि = पञ्च + एतानि (द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् chapter 18, verse 13)
    पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे |
    साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् || 18-13||

    पञ्चैते = पञ्च + एते (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् chapter 18, verse 15)
    शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः |
    न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः || 18-15||

    Please note that “पञ्चमम्‌” used in 18-14, is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पञ्चम’ (and not प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पञ्चन्’)

    4. ‘पञ्चन्’ takes only the बहुवचन-प्रत्ययाः। They are जस्, शस्, भिस्, भ्यस्, आम् and सुप्।

    5. Which of the following statements is true regarding the प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्”?
    a) It is always used in the feminine gender – regardless of whether it is qualifying a noun in another gender.
    b) It is an अव्ययम्।
    c) It can be used in all three genders but the forms are the same regardless of the gender.
    d) Just like the प्रातिपदिकम् “त्रि” or “चतुर्” it can be used in all three genders and the forms are different in each gender.

    c) It can be used in all three genders but the forms are the same regardless of the gender.
    (Also, it is always बहुवचनान्तम्)

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Five days of the New Year have gone by.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “गत” for “have gone by.”
    नूतनस्य वर्षस्य पञ्च दिनानि गतानि।

    7. Please list the five synonyms for the word “तारा” (प्रातिपदिकम् “तारा” feminine, meaning “star”) as given in the अमर-कोश:।
    नक्षत्रमृक्षं भं तारा तारकाऽप्युडु वा स्त्रियाम् ।।१-३-२१।।
    (इति षट् “नक्षत्रसामान्यस्य” नामानि)
    The synonyms of the word तारा are:
    1. नक्षत्रम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “नक्षत्र”, neuter)
    2. ऋक्षम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋक्ष”, neuter)
    3. भम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “भ”, neuter)
    4. तारकम्/तारका (प्रातिपदिकम् “तारक”, neuter or प्रातिपदिकम् “तारका”, feminine)
    5. उडु/उडुः (प्रातिपदिकम् “उडु”,neuter/feminine)

    Note: The word “अपि” tells us that तारका can also be used in the neuter (as तारकम्). In his commentary on the अमरकोश:, मल्लिनाथ: says – अपिशब्दात् तारकाशब्द: नपुंसकश्च स्यात्। “भं नक्षत्रं तारकं तारका च” इति हलायुध:। (हलायुध: is another शब्दकोश: like अमरकोश:)

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get परि + अदृश्यत = पर्यदृश्यत ?
    6-1-77 इको यणचि

    2. Can you spot a place in the verse where the सूत्रम् 8-3-34 विसर्जनीयस्य सः has been used?
    In ततस्ताराद्युतिस्तारो। The पदच्छेदः is ततः, ताराद्युतिः, तारः।
    The सन्धि-कार्यम् between ततः, ताराद्युतिः is as follows
    ततस् + ताराद्युतिः = ततर् + ताराद्युतिः (8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः) = ततः + ताराद्युतिः (8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः) = ततस् ताराद्युतिः (8-3-34 विसर्जनीयस्य सः)
    Similarly between ताराद्युतिः, तारः।

  2. 1. By 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति, the लोपः of नकारः (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) is not visible to 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् because 7-1-9 is a सुँब्विधिः। 8-2-2 limits the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्। The meaning of 8-2-2 is as follows:
    The लोपः of नकारः (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those prior rules that are in following categories:
    1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
    2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
    3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
    4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
    Since 7-1-9 falls in category 1, the नकार-लोप: done by 8-2-7 remains असिद्ध: in the eyes of 7-1-9. It still sees an अङ्गम् ending in a नकार:। Hence it cannot apply.

    2.
    The प्रातिपदिकम् “पञ्चन्” comes in the following verses of the गीता।
    महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च |
    इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः || 13-6||

    पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे |
    साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् || 18-13||

    शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः |
    न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः || 18-15||

    3. The word punch (like in the drink) most likely came from the Sanskrit पञ्च। The dictionary gives the following details on the origin of this word “ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: apparently from Sanskrit pañca ‘five, five kinds of’ (because the drink had five ingredients).”
    The word punch – in the meaning “fist” – may also have come from the Sanskrit पञ्च since a fist is formed with the five fingers.

    4. Since “पञ्चन्” is a नित्यं बहुवचनान्त-शब्द: only the following सुँप्-प्रत्यया: can be used with it – जस्, शस्, भिस्, भ्यस्, आम् and सुप्।

    6. नूतनस्य वर्षस्य पञ्च दिनानि गतानि।

    7. The synonyms of तारा are
    नक्षत्रम्, ऋक्षम्, भम्, तारकम्/तारका, उडु/उडुः। The first three are neuter, and the last two are neuter/feminine.

    8. Most of the rules required for अच्-सन्धि: are found in the first quarter of the sixth chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।
    पाणिनि: runs a “संहितायाम्” अधिकार: from 6-1-72 to 6-1-158. Within that, the अनुवृत्ति: of “अचि” goes from 6-1-77 इको यणचि up to 6-1-124. This is the section where the rules for अच्-सन्धि: are concentrated.

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