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सखायम् mAs

Today we will look at the form सखायम् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 8-11-13

सखायं पतितं दृष्ट्वा जम्भो बलिसखः सुहृत् ।
अभ्ययात् सौहृदं सख्युर्हतस्यापि समाचरन् ।। ८-११-१३ ।।

Gita Press translation "Finding his friend (Bali) fallen (in battle), the demon Jambha, a (great) friend and well-wisher of Bali, assailed Indra, (thus) rendering good offices even to his fallen friend."

सखि gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्. The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि”.

(1) सखि + अम् । अम् gets सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य . By 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , when following the word सखि that has the designation अङ्गम्, the non-vocative affixes that have the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् behave as if they have णकारः as an इत् .

(2) सखै + अम् । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति , the ending vowel of the अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an इत् .

(3) सखायम् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः, ‘आय्’ comes as an आदेशः for ‘ऐ’.

Questions:

1. Where is the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य used in this verse?

2. As we have seen in previous examples, the त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the त्वा-प्रत्यय: . (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले ।) In this verse we have the word दृष्ट्वा which comes from the धातु: “दृश्” . Who is the doer of this action? Which word in the verse gives us the second (later) action?

3. Why didn’t 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः apply (instead of 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति) after step 1? Why didn’t it apply (instead of 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः) after step 2?

4. Where does पाणिनि: define the term “सम्बुद्धि:” ?

5. Which word in the verse translates to “well-wisher” ? Where is this प्रातिपदिकम् used in the गीता ?

6. In the declension table, in which of the 21 (7 x 3) places does सखि-शब्द: differ from हरि-शब्द:?

7. We have studied a सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः . Which one is that?

8. In the commentary on 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इति किम्? हे सखे। ” Please explain what this means.

9. Besides the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , there is another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) where पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि” . Which one is that?


1 Comment

  1. Namaste Satish MahodayaH

    1. Where is the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य used in this verse?

    The सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य is used in the formation of सख्युः.
    सखि + ङस् (the विवक्षा here is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् )
    = सखि + अस् ( 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)
    = सख्य् + अस् (6-1-77 इको यणचि )
    = सख्य् + उस् (6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य. “The अकारः of ङसिँ and ङस् gets उकारः as a substitute when preceded by the term खि, ति, खी, or ती on which the यण् substitution has taken place.”)
    = सख्युः (8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः)
    ————————————————
    2. As we have seen in previous examples, the त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the त्वा-प्रत्यय: . (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले ।) In this verse we have the word दृष्ट्वा which comes from the धातु: “दृश्” . Who is the doer of this action? Which word in the verse gives us the second (later) action?

    The doer of this action is: जम्भः | The second action is अभ्ययात् ।
    ———————————————-
    3. Why didn’t 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः apply (instead of 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति) after step 1? Why didn’t it apply (instead of 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः) after step 2?

    After step 1 – By 1-4-2 विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् , 7-2-115 takes precedence over 6-1-107, since it is a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी .

    After step 2 – For 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः , the वृत्तिः is – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix अम् there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter. The preceding vowel should be अक् । Here ऐ ( from सखै ) is not अक् । So we cannot apply 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः |
    ————————————————————-
    4. Where does पाणिनि: define the term “सम्बुद्धि:” ?
    Answer: 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः defines the term “सम्बुद्धि:” |
    ———————————————————
    5. Which word in the verse translates to “well-wisher” ? Where is this प्रातिपदिकम् used in the गीता ?

    The word is सुहृत्.
    It comes in the following verses in the Gita.
    श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि |
तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान्‌ || 1-27||
    भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम्‌ |
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति || 5-29||
    सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु |
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते || 6-9||
    गतिर्भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सुहृत्‌ |
प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजमव्ययम्‌ || 9-18||
    —————————————————————
    6. In the declension table, in which of the 21 (7 x 3) places does सखि-शब्द: differ from हरि-शब्द:?
    हरि : / हरी / हरयः
    हरिम् / हरी / हरीन्
    हरिणा / हरिभ्याम् / हरिभिः
    हरये / हरिभ्याम् / हरिभ्यः
    हरेः / हरिभ्याम् / हरिभ्यः
    हरेः / हर्योः / हरीणाम्
    हरौ / हर्योः / हरिषु

    सखा / सखायौ / सखायः
    सखायम् / सखायौ / सखीन्
    सख्या / सखिभ्याम् / सखिभिः
    सख्ये / सखिभ्याम् / सखिभ्यः
    सख्युः/ सखिभ्याम् / सखिभ्यः
    सख्युः / सख्योः/ सखीनाम्
    सख्यौ / सख्योः / सखिषु

    Looking at the two declension tables of “हरि” and “सखि”, the places that they differ are:
    प्रथमा – एक-वचनम्, द्वि-वचनम्, बहु-वचनम् / द्वितीया – एक-वचनम्, द्वि-वचनम् / तृतीया – एक-वचनम् / चतुर्थी, पञ्चमी, षष्ठी, सप्तमी – एक-वचनम् |
    These differences are because of the घि-सञ्ज्ञा for ‘हरि’ and rules specific to ‘सखि’ ।
    ———————————————-
    7. We have studied a सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः . Which one is that?

    It is 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति
    ————————————————-
    8. In the commentary on 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इति किम्? हे सखे। ” Please explain what this means.

    It means “Why has पाणिनि: said that 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ should not apply in the case of सम्बुद्धिः ? The answer is – in the case सम्बुद्धि: the form is हे सखे – hence 7-1-92 (and 7-1-93) must not apply here.”
    The derivation is as follows…
    सखि + सुँ = सखि + स् (1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)
    = सखे + स् (7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुणः)
    = हे सखे (6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः )

    If पाणिनि: has not said “असम्बुद्धौ” then 7-1-92 (and 7-1-93) would have applied giving the undesired form हे सखान्
    —————————————-
    9. Besides the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , there is another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) where पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि” . Which one is that?

    1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि

    Namaste
    Lalitha.

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