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सर्वे mNp

Today we will look at the form सर्वे mNp from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 1-9.

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ∥ 1-9 ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अन्ये चेति। मदर्थे मत्प्रयोजनार्थं जीवितं त्यक्तुमध्यवसिता इत्यर्थः । नाना अनेकानि शस्त्राणि प्रहरणसाधनानि येषां ते । युद्धे विशारदाः । निपुणा इत्यर्थः ∥ ९ ∥

Gita Press Translation – And there are many other heroes, all skilled in warfare equipped with various weapons and missiles, who have staked their lives for me.

‘सर्व’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(1) सर्व + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् – The (twenty-one) affixes (case-endings) ‘सुँ’ etc are used after a प्रातिपदिकम् and also after a term ending in the (feminine) affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’। See question 1.

Note: ‘सर्व’ gets the सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि – The list of terms starting with ‘सर्व’ are called सर्वनामानि (pronouns.)

(2) सर्व + शी । By 7-1-17 जसः शी – Following a pronoun ending in short ‘अ’ the nominative plural ending ‘जस्’ is replaced by ‘शी’। Note: In the सूत्रम् 7-1-17, the term जस: is the sixth case of जस्। Hence by 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ would be replaced by ‘शी’। But as per the rule 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित् सर्वस्य, ‘शी’ replaces the entire affix ‘जस्’। See question 3.

(3) सर्व + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। See question 4 and 5.

(4) सर्वे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। Note: ‘अ’, ‘ए’ and ‘ओ’ get the गुण-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-2 अदेङ् गुणः।The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः। See question 6.

Questions:

1. In step 1, how did we narrow down to ‘जस्’ from the list of 21 affixes? What are the rules involved here?

2. How is the form ‘सर्वे’ different from the प्रथमा-विभक्ति-बहुवचनम् of राम-शब्दः? What is the reason for the difference?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says  – अनेकाल्त्वात्सर्वादेशः। On this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – न तु शित्त्वादिति भावः। Please explain.

4. The अनुवृत्तिः of ‘प्रत्ययस्य’ comes into the सूत्रम् 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते from the सूत्रम् 1-3-6 षः प्रत्ययस्य। Hence in order for 1-3-8 to apply in step 3, ‘शी’ would have to be a प्रत्ययः (affix). But ‘शी’ is a आदेशः (substitute) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी, which is outside the प्रत्यय-अधिकारः (which runs from 3-1-1 प्रत्यय: to the end of the fifth chapter). Then, how does 1-3-8 apply in step 3? Hint: Consider the सूत्रम् 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ।

5. In the affix ‘सुँ’, the letter ‘उँ’ is a ‘इत्’ letter. Why is the letter ‘ई’ in ‘शी’ not a ‘इत्’ letter?

6. Why did we apply 6-1-87 आद्गुणः, instead of the rule 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः in step 4?


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