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सूत्र-सूचिः part VII

ओ३म्

तद्धितप्रकरणम्‌ । Video

Note: In English तद्धिता: affixes are called secondary affixes in contrast to कृत् affixes which are called primary affixes. The reason is that a तद्धित: affix is added to a nominal form (generally a पदम्) which itself may be derived by adding a कृत् (primary) affix to a verbal root.

4-1-82 समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । Video

वृत्तिः इदं पदत्रयमधिक्रियते प्राग्दिश इति यावत् । The three terms ‘समर्थानाम्’, ‘प्रथमात्’ and ‘वा’ are hereby authorized to exert their influence on the rules down from here prior to 5-3-1 प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिः, hence the affixes prescribed by the rules in this section are introduced optionally following the term which is the first among the terms (mentioned in the prescribing rule) and is capable of conveying a meaning (which is only possible once the सन्धि: operations inside the term have been performed).
Note: This is a अधिकार-सूत्रम् – a governing rule which itself does not prescribe any operation but exerts its influence on the rules that follow. This सूत्रम् exerts its influence on the rules prior to 5-3-1 प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिः।
Note: The अधिकार: of 4-1-82 समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा is contained within the अधिकार: of 4-1-76 तद्धिताः which itself is contained within the अधिकार: of 4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌ which itself is contained within the अधिकार: of 3-1-1 प्रत्ययः, 3-1-2 परश्च।
Note: The sixth case affix used here in समर्थानाम् is in the sense of निर्धारणे (ref. 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌) – Among the terms (in which सन्धि: operations have been performed) mentioned in a rule the term which is mentioned first is singled out.
Note: By saying the affixes prescribed in this section are optional (वा) it means that a sentence may also be constructed to convey the same meaning. For example, we can have the form औपगव: (which ends in the तद्धित: affix अण्) or the sentence उपगोरपत्यम् to convey the same meaning – a descendant of Upagu. अन्यतरस्यांग्रहणानुवृत्ते: समासोऽपि – By bringing down the अनुवृत्ति: of अन्यतरस्याम् (from the prior सूत्रम् 4-1-81 दैवयज्ञिशौचिवृक्षिसात्यमुग्रिकाण्ठेविद्धिभ्योऽन्यतरस्याम्) we can also have the compound उपग्वपत्यम् conveying the same meaning.
Note: By authorizing three individual terms (‘समर्थानाम्’, ‘प्रथमात्’ and ‘वा’) it is understood that if one or two of the terms are not applicable in a particular rule the other(s) still apply. Even though ‘समर्थानाम्’ and ‘प्रथमात्’ have no application from 5-3-1 on down the term ‘वा’ (optionally) continues to apply.
Note: In general, a तद्धित: affix is added to a पदम् (and not to a raw प्रातिपदिकम्) making the operation a पदविधिः and hence subject to the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 2-1-1 समर्थः पदविधिः। Consider the example – वस्त्रमुपगोरपत्यं चैत्रस्य – Upagu’s garment, Caitra’s descendant. The पदम् ‘उपगो:’ does end in the sixth case affix (ङस्) but its connection is with वस्त्रम् and not with अपत्यम्। Hence we cannot add a तद्धित: affix (अण्) to ‘उपगु ङस्’ in the sense of 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम्।
Note: In this सूत्रम् the meaning of सामर्थ्यम् is कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वम् – a state in which the सन्धि: operations have been performed. (This meaning is different from that in the सूत्रम् 2-1-1 समर्थः पदविधिः।)
Note: The term तद्धिता: is, of course, used to denote the affixes (prescribed from 4-1-76 तद्धिताः down to the end of the fifth chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी) but it may also be used to denote the word forms which are derived using these affixes.
Note: पाणिनि: has devoted 1,115 rules (from 4-1-76 तद्धिताः down to the end of the fifth chapter) in the अष्टाध्यायी for तद्धिता: affixes. This is a large section accounting for more than a quarter of the entire अष्टाध्यायी।

उदाहरणम् –

सुउत्थितस्य अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सौत्थिति: – a (male) descendant of Sūtthita. As mandated by the present सूत्रम् 4-1-82 we have to first perform the सन्धि: operation between ‘सु + उत्थित’ to give ‘सूत्थित’ (by 6-1-101) and only then add the appropriate तद्धित: affix.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सूत्थित ङस् + इञ् by 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम्, 4-1-95 अत इञ्। In the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् the term तस्य is mentioned first and hence the affix (इञ्) is added to ‘सूत्थित ङस्’ (which denotes the name of the person who has the descendant) and not to – for example – ‘देवदत्त सुँ’ (which denotes the name of the descendant.)
= सूत्थित ङस् + इ 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Note: ‘सूत्थित ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सूत्थित + इ 2-4-71
= सौत्थित + इ 7-2-117
= सौत्थित् + इ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= सौत्थिति

If we were to add the तद्धित: affix (इञ्) without first performing the सन्धि: operation between ‘सु + उत्थित’ we would get the incorrect final form सावुत्थिति: as follows –
सुउत्थित ङस् + इञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-95 = सुउत्थित ङस् + इ 1-3-3, 1-3-9 = सुउत्थित + इ 2-4-71 = सौउत्थित + इ 7-2-117 = सावुत्थित + इ 6-1-78 = सावुत्थित् + इ 1-4-18, 6-4-148 = सावुत्थिति।

4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् । Video

वृत्तिः ‘तेन दीव्यति’ इत्यतः प्रागणधिक्रियते । The affix ‘अण्’ is hereby authorized as the default affix for all rules from here (4-1-83) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्।
Note: The other affixes prescribed in this section (from 4-1-83 prior to 4-4-2) are अपवादाः (exceptions) to the affix ‘अण्’। In this section, wherever no other affix is specifically prescribed, the affix ‘अण्’ comes in by default.
Note: This is a अधिकार-सूत्रम् (governing rule) which exerts its influence from here (4-1-83) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2. It is also a विधि-सूत्रम् (prescriptive rule) because it prescribes the affix ‘अण्’। It may also be looked upon as a परिभाषा-सूत्रम् (rule of interpretation) because it tells us to interpret the rules from here (4-1-83) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 such that if a rule does not prescribe an affix, then the affix ‘अण्’ should be used.

उदाहरणम् – रघोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = राघवः – a (male) descendant of (the king) Raghu.

Example continued under the सूत्रम् 4-1-92

4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् । Video

वृत्तिः षष्ठ्यन्तात् कृतसन्धेः समर्थादपत्येऽर्थे उक्ता वक्ष्यमाणाश्च प्रत्यया वा स्युः । Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
Note: The use of a तद्धित: affix is optional because a sentence or a compound may also be constructed to convey the same meaning. So for example – the तद्धित: form राघवः and the sentence रघोरपत्यम् and the compound रघ्वपत्यम् all convey the same meaning – a descendant of (the king) Raghu.

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 4-1-83

रघु ङस् + अण् 4-1-92, 4-1-83
= रघु ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘रघु ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= रघु + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम्
= राघु + अ 7-2-117

Example continued under the सूत्रम् 6-4-146

6-4-146 ओर्गुणः । Video

वृत्तिः उवर्णान्तस्य भस्य गुणस्तद्धिते । When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 4-1-92

राघु + अ Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राघु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= राघो + अ 6-4-146
= राघव 6-1-78

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राघव’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः । Video

वृत्तिः दित्‍यादिभ्‍यः पत्‍युत्तरपदाच्‍च प्राग्‍दीव्‍यतीयेष्‍वर्थेषु ण्‍यः स्‍यात् । The affix ‘ण्य’ is authorized for all rules from here (4-1-85) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has the base ‘दिति’ or ’अदिति’ or ’आदित्य’ or a compound which has ‘पति’ as its latter member.
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।

उदाहरणम् – दितेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = दैत्यः – a (male) descendant of Diti

दिति ङस् + ण्य 4-1-92, 4-1-85
Note: The affix ‘ण्‍य’ is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83
= दिति ङस् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ‘दिति ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= दिति + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्‍य’ is a णित् (has the letter ण् as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘दिति’।
= दैति + य 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दैति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= दैत्य 6-4-148
The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैत्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly अदितेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = आदित्यः – a (male) descendant of Aditi

बृहस्पतेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = बार्हस्पत्यः – a (male) descendant of Bṛhaspati

बृहस्पति ङस् + ण्य 4-1-92, 4-1-85
Note: The affix ‘ण्‍य’ is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83
= बृहस्पति ङस् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ’बृहस्पति ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= बृहस्पति + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्‍य’ is a णित् (has the letter ण् as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’ऋ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘बृहस्पति’।
= बार् हस्पति + य 7-2-117, 1-1-51
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘बार्हस्पति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= बार्हस्पत्य 6-4-148
The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बार्हस्पत्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-86 उत्सादिभ्योऽञ् Video

वृत्तिः प्राग्‍दीव्‍यतीयेष्‍वर्थेषु । The तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ is authorized for all rules down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has ‘उत्स’ etc (listed in the उत्सादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affixes (‘इञ्’ etc.) which are अपवादाः to the affix ‘अण्’।
Note: The final form is the same regardless of whether the affix ‘अञ्’ (prescribed by this सूत्रम् 4-1-86) or the affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) is used. The only difference is in the स्वरः (intonation) in the Vedas.

उदाहरणम् – भरतस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = भारतः – a (male) descendant of Bharata

भरत ङस् + अञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-86
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ over-rules the default affix ‘अण्’ as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by 4-1-95 अत इञ्)।
= भरत ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘भरत ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= भरत + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ञ् as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘भरत’।
= भारत + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भारत’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= भारत् + अ 6-4-148
= भारत ।
The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भारत’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः अपत्यत्वेन विवक्षितं पौत्रादि गोत्रसंज्ञं स्यात् । The designation ‘गोत्र’ is assigned to a grandson/granddaughter onward when the intention is to express him/her as a descendant (अपत्यम्)।

Note: A person has the designation अपत्यम् relative to his/her parent. But relative to his/her grandparent (or great-grandparent etc) the person also gets the designation गोत्रम् (along with अपत्यम्) – which may be stated as गोत्रापत्यम्।
Note: The designation अपत्यम् requires only one condition to be satisfied which is that the person should be a descendant. But गोत्रापत्यम् requires one additional condition to be satisfied which is that the person should be grandson/granddaughter or later generation.

उदाहरणम् – पुलस्तेर्गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पौलस्त्यः (रावणः) – a (male) descendant of (the sage) Pulasti. It refers to Rāvaṇa (grandson of the sage Pulasti)

Example continued under 4-1-105

4-1-105 गर्गादिभ्यो यञ्Video

वृत्तिः गोत्रापत्ये । Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘गर्ग’ etc (listed in the गर्गादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘यञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote a descendant having the designation ‘गोत्र’ (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌।)
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of गोत्रे comes down into this सूत्रम् from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ्।

Example continued from 4-1-162

पुलस्ति ङस् + यञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-162, 4-1-105
= पुलस्ति ङस् + य 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘पुलस्ति ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पुलस्ति + य 2-4-71
= पौलस्ति + य 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौलस्ति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= पौलस्त् + य 6-4-148
= पौलस्त्य ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौलस्त्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-95 अत इञ् Video

वृत्तिः अपत्येऽर्थे । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘इञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base ending in the letter ‘अ’।
Note: The use of a तद्धित: affix is optional because a sentence or a compound may also be constructed to convey the same meaning. So for example – the तद्धित: form दाशरथिः and the sentence दशरथस्यापत्यम् and the compound दशरथापत्यम् all convey the same meaning – a descendant of (the king) Daśaratha.

Note: The term अत: used in this सूत्रम् is an adjective to प्रातिपदिकात्‌ (ref. 4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌) and as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get the meaning अदन्तात् प्रातिपदिकात्‌। And bearing in mind that the affix is added to a पदम् and not directly to a प्रातिपदिकम् (base), it implies that the affix (इञ्) is (optionally) applied following a (sixth-case ending) पदम् having a base ending in the letter ‘अ’।
Note: The affix ‘इञ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।

दशरथस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = दाशरथिः (रामः) – a (male) descendant of Daśaratha. It refers to Rāma (son of Daśaratha)

दशरथ ङस् + इञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-95
= दशरथ ङस् + इ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘दशरथ ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= दशरथ + इ 2-4-71
= दाशरथ + इ 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दाशरथ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= दाशरथ् + इ 6-4-148
= दाशरथि ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दाशरथि’ declines like हरि-शब्दः।

4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च । Video

वृत्तिः इञ् स्यादपत्येऽर्थे। To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘इञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘बाहु’ etc (listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: आकृतिगणोऽयम्। The बाह्वादि-गण: is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations.
Note: This सूत्रम् extends the application of ‘इञ्’ to words that do not end in the letter ‘अ’। Also in certain cases it brings back the ‘इञ्’ where 4-1-95 would have otherwise been over-ruled by a अपवादः।

उदाहरणम् – सुमित्राया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सौमित्रिः (लक्ष्मणः) – a (male) descendant of Sumitrā. It refers to Lakṣmaṇa (son of Sumitrā)

सुमित्रा ङस् + इञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-96. Note: Since ‘सुमित्रा’ does not end in the letter ‘अ’ the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ् cannot apply here. Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘ढक्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक्) which in turn is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च) because ‘सुमित्रा’ is specifically listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:।
= सुमित्रा ङस् + इ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘सुमित्रा ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= सुमित्रा + इ 2-4-71
= सौमित्रा + इ 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘सौमित्रा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= सौमित्र् + इ 6-4-148
= सौमित्रि ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सौमित्रि’ declines like हरि-शब्दः।

उदाहरणम् –

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः | गीता verse 1-17

सत्यकस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = सात्यकिः – a (male) descendant of Satyaka (of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty.)

सत्यक ङस् + इञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-96. Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) which in turn is over-ruled by the affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-114 ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च) and finally the present सूत्रम् 4-1-96 brings back the affix इञ् since ‘सत्यक’ is listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:।
= सत्यक ङस् + इ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘सत्यक ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सत्यक + इ 2-4-71
= सात्यक + इ 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘सात्यक’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= सात्यक् + इ 6-4-148
= सात्यकि ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सात्यकि’ declines like हरि-शब्दः।

4-1-104 अनृष्यानन्तर्ये बिदादिभ्योऽञ्Video

वृत्तिः ये त्वत्रानृषयस्तेभ्योऽपत्येऽन्यत्र तु गोत्रे । Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘बिद’ etc (listed in the बिदादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote the sense of
i) गोत्रापत्यम् (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌) of a sage
ii) अनन्तरापत्यम् (immediate descendant) of one who is not a sage.

उदाहरणम् – शुनकस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = शौनकः – a (male) descendant (but not immediate) of (the sage) Śunaka.

शुनक ङस् + अञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-162, 4-1-104
= शुनक ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘शुनक ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= शुनक + अ 2-4-71
= शौनक + अ 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘शौनक’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= शौनक् + अ 6-4-148
= शौनक । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शौनक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

पुत्रस्यानन्तरापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पौत्रः – an immediate (male) descendant of a son = son’s son

पुत्र ङस् + अञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-104
= पुत्र ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘पुत्र ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पुत्र + अ 2-4-71
= पौत्र + अ 7-2-117. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौत्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18
= पौत्र् + अ 6-4-148
= पौत्र । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौत्र’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण्Video

वृत्तिः अपत्ये । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘शिव’ etc (listed in the शिवादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: ‘अण्’ is already prescribed as the default affix by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् but under certain conditions, it gets overruled by affixes such as ‘इञ्’ etc (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc.) Hence the present सूत्रम् 4-1-112 is necessary to re-prescribe the affix ‘अण्’ in order to get the required forms.
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of ‘गोत्रे’ from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ् does not come into this सूत्रम् 4-1-112. It stops at the prior सूत्रम् 4-1-111 भर्गात्‌ त्रैगर्ते।

उदाहरणम् – ककुत्स्थस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = काकुत्स्थः (रामः) – a (male) descendant of (the king) Kakutstha. It refers to Śrī Rāma.

ककुत्स्थ ङस् + अण् 4-1-92, 4-1-112. Note: The सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् would not have been able to prescribe the affix ‘अण्’ here because it would have been over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्।
= ककुत्स्थ ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘ककुत्स्थ ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= ककुत्स्थ + अ 2-4-71
= काकुत्स्थ + अ 7-2-117 Note: The अङ्गम् ‘काकुस्थ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= काकुत्स्थ् + अ 6-4-148
= काकुत्स्थ । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘काकुत्स्थ’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-114 ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च

वृत्तिः ऋषिभ्योऽन्धकेभ्यो वृष्णिभ्यः कुरुभ्यश्चापत्येऽण् तद्धितः प्रत्ययः स्यात् । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base the name of a sage, or of one born in the ‘अन्धक’, ‘वृष्णि’ or ‘कुरु’ dynasty.

Note: ‘अण्’ is already prescribed as the default affix by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् but under certain conditions it gets overruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्)। Hence the present सूत्रम् 4-1-114 is necessary to re-prescribe the affix ‘अण्’ in order to get the required forms.

उदाहरणम् –

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः | गीता verse 1-23

धृतराष्ट्रस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = धार्तराष्ट्रः – a (male) descendant of (the king) Dhṛtarāṣṭra (of the Kuru dynasty.)

धृतराष्ट्र ङस् + अण् 4-1-92, 4-1-114. Note: The सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् would not have been able to prescribe the affix ‘अण्’ here because it would have been overruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्।
= धृतराष्ट्र ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘धृतराष्ट्र ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= धृतराष्ट्र + अ 2-4-71
= धार्तराष्ट्र + अ 7-2-117, 1-1-51 Note: The अङ्गम् ‘धार्तराष्ट्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= धार्तराष्ट् र् + अ 6-4-148
= धार्तराष्ट्र । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धार्तराष्ट्र’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the forms वासिष्ठ: (वसिष्ठस्यापत्यं पुमान्), वासुदेवः (वसुदेवस्यापत्यं पुमान्) etc.

4-1-115 मातुरुत्‌ संख्यासम्भद्रपूर्वायाः Video

वृत्तिः संख्‍यादिपूर्वस्‍य मातृशब्‍दस्‍योदादेशः स्‍यादण् प्रत्‍ययश्‍च (अपत्ये)। To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant), the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has the base ‘मातृ’, preceded either by a word denoting a number (संख्या) or the word ‘सम्’ or the word ‘भद्र’। Simultaneously, the ending short letter ‘ऋ’ of the word ‘मातृ’ takes the letter ‘उ’ as the substitute.

Note: The purpose of the सूत्रम् 4-1-115 is to prescribe the letter ‘उ’ (which after the application of 1-1-51 becomes ‘उर्’) as the substitute, because the affix अण् is already available by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।

उदाहरणम् –

षण्णां मातॄणामपत्यम् (पुमान्) = षाण्मातुरः (कार्तिकेयः) – a (male) offspring of six mothers.

Note: We referred to this example षाण्मातुरः earlier in the समास-प्रकरणम् when studying the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च।

First we construct the द्विगु-समासः ‘षण्मातृ’ as follows –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
षष् आम् + मातृ आम् 2-1-51. Note: Compounding is allowed here on the condition that the sense (तस्यापत्यम्) of the तद्धित: affix अण् (prescribed by 4-1-115 मातुरुत्‌ संख्यासम्भद्रपूर्वायाः) is to be expressed.
As per 1-2-43 the term ‘षष् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘षष् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘षष् आम् + मातृ आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= षष् + मातृ 2-4-71. Note: ‘षष्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते to apply in the next step.
= षड् + मातृ 8-2-39
= षण्मातृ 8-4-45

Now we derive the form ‘षाण्मातुर’ from the compound ‘षण्मातृ’ as follows –
षण्मातुर् आम् + अण् 4-1-92, 4-1-115, 1-1-51
= षण्मातुर् आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘षण्मातुर् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= षण्मातुर् + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘षण्मातुर्’।
= षाण्मातुर 7-2-117
The compound ‘षाण्मातुर’ is an adjective. It declines like राम-शब्दः in the masculine.

Similarly, we can derive the following –
द्वयोर्मात्रोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = द्वैमातुरः (गणेशः) – a (male) offspring of two mothers

सम्मातुरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = साम्मातुरः – a (male) offspring of a good mother
Note: सम्माता is a प्रादि-समास: explained as सम् (समीचीना) माता = सम्माता – good mother

भद्रमातुरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = भाद्रमातुरः – a (male) offspring of an auspicious mother
Note: भद्रमाता is a कर्मधारय-समास: explained as भद्रा चासौ माता = भद्रमाता – auspicious mother

4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक्Video

वृत्तिः स्‍त्रीप्रत्‍ययान्‍तेभ्‍यो ढक् (अपत्ये) । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant), the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base ending in a feminine affix (prescribed in the अधिकारः of 4-1-3 स्त्रियाम्)।

Note: As per the प्ररिभाषा ’प्रत्ययग्रहणे तदन्तग्रहणम्’ – The term ‘स्त्रीभ्यः’ should be understood as ’स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्तेभ्यः’, that is terms ending in the feminine affixes like टाप्, ङीप् etc.

उदाहरणम् – विनताया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = वैनतेयः (गरुडः) – a (male) descendant of Vinatā. It refers to Garuḍa (son of Vinatā)

विनता ङस् + ढक् 4-1-92, 4-1-120 Note: The सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् applies in the present example, since the प्रातिपदिकम् ’विनता’ ends in the feminine affix ‘टाप्’।
= विनता ङस् + ढ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘विनता ङस् + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= विनता + ढ 2-4-71
Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
= विनता + एय् अ 7-1-2, 1-3-10

Continued under next सूत्रम् 7-2-118

7-2-118 किति चVideo

वृत्तिः किति तद्धिते, अचामादेरचो वृद्धिः स्‍यात् । The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The entire prior सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः comes as अनुवृत्तिः in to this सूत्रम्।
Note: In the word अचाम्, the sixth case affix is in the sense of निर्धारणे (ref. 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌।)
Note: The वृद्धि: of the first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् when followed by a तद्धित: affix which is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) is done by the prior सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः। 7-2-118 extends the वृद्धि: substitution to the तद्धित: affix which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। This is the purpose of च in the सूत्रम् 7-2-118 किति च।

Continuing from 4-1-120
विनता + एय् अ
= वैनता + एय 7-2-118
Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply here.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैनता’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= वैनत् + एय 6-4-148
= वैनतेय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैनतेय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the following –
कुन्त्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौन्तेयः (अर्जुनः) – a (male) descendant of Kuntī. It generally refers to Arjuna (son of Kuntī)
सरमाया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सारमेयः – a (male) descendant of Saramā. Saramā is the name of the female dog belonging to the gods. Hence Sārameya refers to a dog.
द्रौपद्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = द्रौपदेयः – a (male) descendant of Draupadī

While in the following, the affix ‘ढक्’ is overruled –
पृथाया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = पार्थः (अर्जुनः) – a (male) descendant of Pṛthā. It generally refers to Arjuna (son of Pṛthā). Here the affix ‘अण्’ by 4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् applies.
सुमित्राया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सौमित्रिः (लक्ष्मणः) – a (male) descendant of Sumitrā. It refers to Lakṣmaṇa (son of Sumitrā). Here the affix ‘इञ्’ by 4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च applies.

4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌

वृत्तिः राजन्श्वशुरशब्दाभ्यामपत्ये यत् प्रत्ययो भवति। To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant), the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has either ‘राजन्’ or ‘श्वशुर’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) in the case of ‘राजन्’ as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) in the case of ‘श्वशुर’।
Note: The compound ‘राजश्वशुर’ used in the form राजश्वशुरात् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) is a समाहार-द्वन्द्वः। The विग्रहः is as follows –
राजा च श्वशुरश्चानयोः समाहार: = राजश्वशुरम्।

उदाहरणम् –
श्वशुरस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = श्वशुर्यः – father-in-law’s son = brother-in-law
Note: ’श्वशुर्यौ देवरश्यालौ’ इत्यमरः। श्वशुर्यः could mean either देवरः (husband’s brother) or श्यालः (wife’s brother).

श्वशुर ङस् + यत् 4-1-92, 4-1-137
Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) and finally the affix ‘यत्’ prevails because of the specific mention of ‘श्वशुर’ in 4-1-137
= श्वशुर ङस् + य 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: The letter ‘त्’ in the affix ’यत्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation (ref: 6-1-185 तित्स्वरितम्)।
‘श्वशुर ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= श्वशुर + य 2-4-71
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘श्वशुर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= श्वशुर् + य 6-4-148
= श्वशुर्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्वशुर्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: In the case of ‘राजन्’, we have to consider the वार्तिकम् ’राज्ञो जातावेवेति वाच्यम्’ which says that the affix ‘यत्’ may only be used when ‘राजन्’ denotes a class (जातिः)।

वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌) ’राज्ञो जातावेवेति वाच्यम्’

The affix ‘यत्’ can be added to the term ‘राजन्’ only when ‘राजन्’ denotes a class (जातिः)।

Note: The purport of this वार्तिकम् is that – The affix ‘यत्’ in the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) may be used following the word ‘राजन्’ only if the derived form conveys the sense of (kṣatriya) class.

उदाहरणम् –
राज्ञोऽपत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = राजन्यः – the son of a kṣatriya king (from his kṣatriya wife)
राजन् ङस् + यत् 4-1-92, 4-1-137, वार्तिकम् ’राज्ञो जातावेवेति वाच्यम्’
= राजन् ङस् + य 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= राजन् + य 2-4-71

Example continued under 6-4-168

6-4-168 ये चाभावकर्मणोः

वृत्तिः यादौ तद्धिते परेऽन् प्रकृत्या स्यान्न तु भावकर्मणोः । When followed by a तद्धितः affix beginning with the letter ‘य्’, the term ‘अन्’ remains unchanged, provided the affix denotes neither the action (भावः) nor the object (कर्म)।
Note: न भावकर्मणोः = अभावकर्मणोः – This is a द्वन्द्वगर्भनञ्तत्पुरुषः।

Example continued from the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌) ’राज्ञो जातावेवेति वाच्यम्’
राजन् + य 6-4-168
Note: In the absence of 6-4-168 the सूत्रम् 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते would have applied to elide the ‘टि’-portion ‘अन्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’, which has the भ-संज्ञा by 1-4-18.
= राजन्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: When the derived form does not convey the sense of (kṣatriya) class, then the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) applies to give the form राजनः।

राज्ञोऽपत्यम् (पुमान्) = राजनः – the son of a kṣatriya king (but not from his kṣatriya wife)
राजन् ङस् + अण् 4-1-92, 4-1-83
= राजन् ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= राजन् + अ 2-4-71

Example continued under 6-4-167

6-4-167 अन्

वृत्तिः अन् प्रकृत्या स्यादणि परे । – When followed by the तद्धितः affix ‘अण्’, the term ‘अन्’ remains unchanged.

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 6-4-168

राजन् + अ 6-4-167
Note: In the absence of 6-4-167 the सूत्रम् 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते would have applied to elide the ‘टि’-portion ‘अन्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’, which has the भ-संज्ञा by 1-4-18.
= राजन । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-138 क्षत्त्राद् घः

वृत्तिः क्षत्त्रशब्दादपत्ये घः प्रत्ययो भवति। To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘घ’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘क्षत्त्र’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘घ’ applies only if the derived form conveys the sense of kṣatriya class.

उदाहरणम् –
क्षत्त्रस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = क्षत्त्रियः – the son of one belonging to kṣatriya class (from his kṣatriya wife)
क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ 4-1-92, 4-1-138
Note: ‘क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= क्षत्त्र + घ 2-4-71
= क्षत्त्र + इय् अ 7-1-2, 1-3-10
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘क्षत्त्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= क्षत्त्र् + इय 6-4-148
= क्षत्त्रिय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षत्त्रिय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् (under the सूत्रम् 7-1-72) – न व्यञ्जनपरस्यैकस्य वानेकस्य वा श्रवणं प्रति विशेषोऽस्ति – In the pronunciation of a conjunct consonant whether the prior member is single or repeated is indistinguishable to the ear. Hence we often see the form ‘क्षत्रिय’ instead of ‘क्षत्त्रिय’।

Note: To denote the son of one belonging to kṣatriya class from a wife who does not belong to kṣatriya class, the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) applies to give the form क्षात्त्रिः।

4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्

वृत्तिः जनपदक्षत्रियवाचकाच्छब्दादञ् स्यादपत्ये। To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.

उदाहरणम् –
विदेहा जनपदः, विदेहो नाम क्षत्रियः। विदेहस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = वैदेहः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Videha, which is also the name of his territory.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘विदेह’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

विदेह ङस् + अञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-168
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ over-rules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by 4-1-95 अत इञ्)।
= विदेह ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘विदेह ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= विदेह + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘विदेह’।
= वैदेह + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदेह’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= वैदेह् + अ 6-4-148
= वैदेह । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेह’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पाञ्चालः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Pañcāla, which is also the name of his territory.

Note: In the feminine, the affix ‘ङीप्’ applies as per the सूत्रम् 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in the letter ‘अ’ and
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has the letter ‘ट्’ as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

For example –
१) विदेहा जनपदः, विदेहो नाम क्षत्रियः। विदेहस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = वैदेही – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Videha, which is also the name of his territory. It refers to Sītā, daughter of Videha (king Janaka).
२) पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = पाञ्चाली – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Pañcāla, which is also the name of his territory. It generally refers to Draupadī.

वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्) ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’

The same तद्धित: affix as is used to denote a descendant, may also be used to denote a king, when applied following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a country/territory, as well as the name of a kṣatriya.

Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, तद्राजमाचक्षाणस्तद्राज इत्यन्वर्थसंज्ञासामर्थ्यात् – The above वार्तिकम् is inferred from the fact that the affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 etc) get the designation तद्राजाः (explained as तेषां राजानस्तद्राजाः) by the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः, which implies that these affixes are also used to denote kings (of those countries/territories).
Note: The तत्वबोधिनी says, इह ‘4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्’ इति प्राप्तो वुञ् बाध्यते – Here, the affix ‘अञ्’ stops the affix ‘वुञ्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्।

उदाहरणम् –
पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालानां जनपदानां राजा = पाञ्चालः – king of the territory Pañcāla, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘पञ्चाल’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

पञ्चाल आम् + अञ् 4-1-168, वार्तिकम् ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’
= पञ्चाल आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘पञ्चाल आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पञ्चाल + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘पञ्चाल’।
= पाञ्चाल + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= पाञ्चाल् + अ 6-4-148
= पाञ्चाल । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण्

वृत्तिः अञोऽपवादः । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base either ‘मगध’ or ‘कलिङ्ग’ or ‘सूरमस’ or a word that has two vowels (अच् letters), provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्।

उदाहरणम् –
मगधा जनपदः, मगधो नाम क्षत्रियः। मगधस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्), मगधानां जनपदानां राजा वा = मागधः।

मगधस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = मागधः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Magadha, which is also the name of his territory.

मगध ङस् + अण् 4-1-170, 4-1-92
= मगध ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘मगध ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= मगध + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘मगध’।
= मागध + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मागध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= मागध् + अ 6-4-148
= मागध । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मागध’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

मगधानां जनपदानां राजा = मागधः – a king of the territory Magadha, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘मगध’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

मगध आम् + अण् 4-1-170, वार्तिकम् ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’
= मगध आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘मगध आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= मगध + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘मगध’।
= मागध + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मागध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= मागध् + अ 6-4-148
= मागध । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मागध’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly we can derive the following –
१) अङ्गस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्), अङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा वा = आङ्गः।
२) कलिङ्गस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्), कलिङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा वा = कालिङ्गः।
३) सूरमसस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्), सूरमसानां जनपदानां राजा वा = सौरमसः।

4-1-172 कुरुनादिभ्यो ण्यः

वृत्तिः जनपदशब्दात्क्षत्रियादित्येव । To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘ण्य’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base ‘कुरु’ or a word beginning with the letter ‘न्’ provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण् in the case of ‘कुरु’, and to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् in the case of a word beginning with the letter ‘न्’।

Note: The compound ‘कुरुनादि’ used in the form कुरुनादिभ्यः (पञ्चमी-बहुवचनम्) is a इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः। The विग्रहः is as follows –
कुरुश्च नादयश्च कुरुनादयः।

उदाहरणम् १)
कुरवो जनपदः, कुरुर्नाम क्षत्रियः। कुरोरपत्यम् (पुमान्), कुरूणां जनपदानां राजा वा = कौरव्यः।

कुरोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौरव्यः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Kuru, which is also the name of his territory.

कुरु ङस् + ण्य 4-1-92, 4-1-172
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण्।
= कुरु ङस् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ‘कुरु ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कुरु + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’उ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘कुरु’।
= कौरु + य 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौरु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-146 to apply in the next step.
= कौरो + य 6-4-146
= कौरव्य 6-1-79 । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौरव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

कुरूणां जनपदानां राजा = कौरव्यः – a king of the territory Kuru, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘कुरु’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

कुरु आम् + ण्य 4-1-172, वार्तिकम् ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’।
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण्।
= कुरु आम् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
‘कुरु आम् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कुरु + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’उ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘कुरु’।
= कौरु + य 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौरु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-146 to apply in the next step.
= कौरो + य 6-4-146
= कौरव्य 6-1-79 । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौरव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

उदाहरणम् २)
निषधा जनपदः, निषधो नाम क्षत्रियः। निषधस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्), निषधानां जनपदानां राजा वा = नैषध्यः।

निषधस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = नैषध्यः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Niṣadha, which is also the name of his territory.

निषध ङस् + ण्य 4-1-92, 4-1-172
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ अपवादः to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्।
= निषध ङस् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ‘निषध ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= निषध + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘निषध’।
= नैषध + य 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘नैषध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= नैषध् + य 6-4-148
= नैषध्य 6-1-79 । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नैषध्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

निषधानां जनपदानां राजा = नैषध्यः – king of the territory Niṣadha, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘निषध’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

निषध आम् + ण्य 4-1-172, वार्तिकम् ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’।
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ अपवादः to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्।
= निषध आम् + य 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ‘निषध आम् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= निषध + य 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘निषध’।
= नैषध + य 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘नैषध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= नैषध् + य 6-4-148
= नैषध्य 6-1-79 । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नैषध्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः ।

वृत्तिः अञादयस्‍तद्राजसंज्ञाः स्‍युः – The affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् etc) get the designation ‘तद्राज’।
Note: These affixes are designated ‘तद्राज’ since (in addition to being used to denote descendants) they are also used to denote the kings of their respective countries/territories.

Note: The word ते in 4-1-174 refers to the affixes prescribed in the prior rules from 4-1-168 to 4-1-173.

2-4-62 तद्राजस्य बहुषु तेनैवास्त्रियाम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः बहुष्‍वर्थेषु तद्राजस्‍य लुक् तदर्थकृते बहुत्‍वे न तु स्‍त्रियाम् । In the plural, a ‘तद्राज’ affix takes the लुक् (elision), provided –
i. the gender of the word is not feminine, and
Ii. the plurality relates to the meaning of the ‘तद्राज’ affix.

उदाहरणम् –
पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालस्यापत्यानि (पुमांसः), पञ्चालानां जनपदानां राजानो वा = पञ्चालाः – (male) descendants of a kṣatriya king Pañcāla, or kings of the territory Pañcāla
पञ्चालस्यापत्यानि (पुमांसः) = पञ्चालाः – (male) descendants of a kṣatriya king named Pañcāla, which is also the name of his territory.
पञ्चाल ङस् + अञ् 4-1-92, 4-1-168
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ over-rules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by 4-1-95 अत इञ्)।
= पञ्चाल ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘पञ्चाल ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पञ्चाल + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘पञ्चाल’।
= पाञ्चाल + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= पाञ्चाल् + अ 6-4-148
= पाञ्चाल । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

The विवक्षा is बहुवचनम्।
पाञ्चाल + जस् 4-1-2
= पञ्चाल + जस् 2-4-62
Note: Since the the affix ‘अञ्’ has the designation ‘तद्राज’ (as per the सूत्रम् 4-1-174), it takes the लुक् elision. As per the न्यायः ‘निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:’ (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the operations performed above by 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः and then by 6-4-148 यस्येति च are reversed because the affix ‘अञ्’ no longer exists.
= पञ्चाल + अस् 1-3-7, 1-3-9 Note: 1-3-4 prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
= पञ्चालास् 6-1-102
= पञ्चालाः 8-2-66, 8-3-15

पञ्चालानां जनपदनां राजानः = पञ्चालाः – kings of the territory Pañcāla, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘पञ्चाल’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.
पञ्चाल आम् + अञ् 4-1-168, वार्तिकम् ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’
Rest of the derivation to arrive at the form पञ्चालाः is same as shown above.

Note: Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-62, the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, ‘रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये’, ‘निरूध्यमाना यदुभिः कथंचित्’ इति तु रघुयदुशब्दयोस्तदपत्ये लक्षणया।
How do we justify good authors’ usages such as the following –
रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये तनुवाग्विभवोऽपि सन् – रघुवंशम् १.९
निरुध्यमाना यदुभिः कथञ्चित् – शिशुपालवधम् ३.२९

The words ‘रघु’ and ‘यदु’, which normally denote king Raghu and king Yadu respectively, are sometimes used indirectly to denote their respective descendants. This explains the usages such as the above.
In these instances, it is inappropriate to conceptualize the presence of an affix having the designation ‘तद्राज’, and its subsequent elision. This is because the words ‘रघु’ and ‘यदु’ only denote the names of kṣatriya kings, and not the names of countries/territories.

Note: तेनैवेति किम्? Why does this सूत्रम् mention the condition तेनैव? Consider the example – प्रियपाञ्चालाः = प्रियः पाञ्चालो येषां ते। This is a बहुव्रीहिः समासः, which is अन्यपदप्रधानः meaning that the main/principal term is outside the compound. As shown in the विग्रहः, the plurality is in येषां ते, while the ‘तद्राज’ affix (‘अञ्’) is in the word पाञ्चाल: which is in the singular. Therefore the plurality does not relate to the meaning of the ‘तद्राज’ affix. The condition तेनैव is not satisfied and hence the सूत्रम् 2-4-62 does not apply. There is no elision of the ‘तद्राज’ affix.
If the condition तेनैव were not to be mentioned, the सूत्रम् 2-4-62 would apply here also giving the undesirable form प्रियपञ्चालाः

Note: अस्त्रियाम् – Why does this सूत्रम् mention the condition अस्त्रियाम्? In the feminine there is no elision of the ‘तद्राज’ affix.
‘पाञ्चाल’ takes the feminine affix ङीप् (prescribed by 4-1-15) to give th form ‘पाञ्चाली’। The plural is पाञ्चाल्यः, and not पञ्चाल्यः

अथ रक्ताद्यर्थकाः।

4-2-1 तेन रक्तं रागात्‌

वृत्तिः अण् स्यात् । To express the sense of ‘colored by that’, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a third case affix and has a base denoting (the name of) a color.

Note: In the
उदाहरणम् –
कषायेण रक्तम् (वस्त्रम्) = काषायम् (वस्त्रम्) – (a cloth) colored with dull-red/brown color
कषाय टा + अण् 4-2-1, 4-1-83
= कषाय टा + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘कषाय टा + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कषाय + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘कषाय’।
= काषाय + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘काषाय’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= काषाय् + अ 6-4-148
= काषाय ।
The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘काषाय’ is an adjective. In the present example it is qualifying the neuter noun वस्त्रम्, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the following –
कुङ्कुमेन रक्तं कौङ्कुमम् (वस्त्रम्) – (a cloth) colored with red color
कुसुम्भेन रक्तं कौसुम्भम् (वस्त्रम्) – (a cloth) colored with saffron color
मञ्जिष्ठया रक्तं माञ्जिष्ठम् (वस्त्रम्) – (a cloth) colored with bright red color

Note: Why does the सूत्रम् 4-2-1 तेन रक्तं रागात्‌ specify the condition रागात्? Consider the example – देवदत्तेन रक्तं वस्त्रम् – a cloth colored by Devadatta. In this example, ‘देवदत्त’ denotes a person (the doer) and not a color. Hence the सूत्रम् 4-2-1 तेन रक्तं रागात्‌ does not apply.

4-2-3 नक्षत्रेण युक्तः कालः

वृत्तिः अण् स्यात् । To denote a time (in which the moon is) in conjunction with a particular constellation, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a third case affix and has a base denoting that particular constellation.

उदाहरणम् – मघया युक्तम् (अहः) = माघमहः – a day in which the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Maghā.
मघा टा + अण् 4-2-3, 4-1-83
= मघा टा + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘मघा टा + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= मघा + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘मघा’।
= माघा + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘माघा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= माघ् + अ 6-4-148
= माघ । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘माघ’ is an adjective. In the present example it is qualifying the neuter noun अहः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the following –
कृत्तिकाभिर्युक्तम् (अहः) = कार्तिकमहः – a day in which the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Kr̥ttikā.

वार्तिकम् (under 6-4-149 सूर्यतिष्यागस्त्यमत्स्यानां य उपधायाः) तिष्‍यपुष्‍ययोर्नक्षत्राणि यलोप इति वाच्‍यम् ।

When the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ follows, there is an elision of the letter ‘य्’ of the words ‘तिष्य’ and ‘पुष्य’ provided they denote constellations.

Note: तिष्यग्रहणं नियमार्थम् – In the case of ‘तिष्य’ the सूत्रम् 6-4-149 सूर्यतिष्यागस्त्यमत्स्यानां य उपधायाः prescribes the elision of the letter ‘य्’ when any तद्धित: affix follows. But now, the above वार्तिकम् limits the elision of the letter ‘य्’ to only when the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ follows.
पुष्यग्रहणं विधानार्थम् – In the case of ‘पुष्य’ there was no rule to prescribe the elision of the letter ‘य्’ when the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ follows. Therefore the above वार्तिकम् is necessary.

उदाहरणम् – पुष्‍येण युक्तम् (अहः) = पौषमहः – a day in which the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Puṣya.
पुष्‍य टा + अण् 4-2-3, 4-1-83
= पुष्‍य टा + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘पुष्‍य टा + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पुष्‍य + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’उ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘पुष्‍य’।
= पौष्य + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौष्य’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= पौष्य् + अ 6-4-148
= पौष् + अ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 6-4-149) तिष्‍यपुष्‍ययोर्नक्षत्राणि यलोप इति वाच्‍यम् ।
= पौष ।
The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौष’ is an adjective. In the present example it is qualifying the neuter noun अहः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the following –
तिष्‍येण युक्तम् (अहः) = तैषमहः – a day in which the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Tiṣya (another name for Puṣya.)

4-2-4 लुबविशेषे
वृत्तिः पूर्वेण विहितस्‍य लुप् स्‍यात् षष्‍टिदण्‍डात्‍मकस्‍य कालस्‍यावान्‍तरविशेषश्‍चेन्न गम्‍यते । To denote a time (in which the moon is) in conjunction with a particular constellation, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the prior सूत्रम् 4-2-3 नक्षत्रेण युक्तः कालः) takes the लुप् elision, provided the entire 24-hour (60-ghatikā) day is being specified and not any sub-division of it.

उदाहरणम् –
अद्य पुष्यः (‘पुष्येण युक्तः पुष्यः कालोऽद्य वर्तते’ इति भावः) – Today is Puṣya (meaning that – the time in which the moon is in conjunction with the constellation Puṣya, occurs today.)
पुष्‍य टा + अण् 4-2-3, 4-1-83
Note: ‘पुष्‍य टा + अण्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पुष्‍य + अण् 2-4-71
= पुष्‍य 4-2-4
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-1-63 न लुमताङ्गस्य prevents the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः from applying.

Example continued under the सूत्रम् 1-2-51

1-2-51 लुपि युक्तवद्व्यक्तिवचने
वृत्तिः लुपि सति प्रकृतिवल्‍लिङ्गवचने स्‍तः । When an affix takes the लुप् elision, then the gender and number of the derived form follows that of the base.

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 4-2-4

The derived प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुष्‍य’ is declined in the masculine singular, complying with the gender and number of the base ‘पुष्य’। Hence प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is पुष्यः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) अद्य मघा (‘मघया युक्तो मघा कालोऽद्य वर्तते’ इति भावः)।
२) अद्य कृत्तिकाः (‘कृत्तिकाभिर्युक्तः कृत्तिकाः कालोऽद्य वर्तते’ इति भावः)।

4-2-24 सास्य देवता ।
वृत्तिः देवताविशेषवाचिनः प्रथमान्तात्समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकाद् ‘अस्य’ इत्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्यात् । To denote something of a particular deity, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.

उदाहरणम् –
इन्‍द्रो देवतास्‍येति = ऐन्‍द्रम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Indra is the presiding deity.

इन्‍द्र सुँ + अण् 4-2-24, 4-1-83
= इन्‍द्र सुँ + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘इन्‍द्र सुँ + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= इन्‍द्र + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘इन्‍द्र’।
= ऐन्‍द्र + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ऐन्‍द्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= ऐन्‍द्र् + अ 6-4-148
= ऐन्‍द्र । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऐन्‍द्र’ is an adjective. Here, it is qualifying the neuter noun हविः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-1-84 अश्वपत्यादिभ्यश्च ।

वृत्तिः एभ्‍योऽण् स्‍यात्‍प्राग्‍दीव्‍यतीयेष्‍वर्थेषु । The तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ is authorized for all rules from here (4-1-84) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has ‘अश्वपति’ etc (listed in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: All the words in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण: are compounds in which the final member is ‘पति’। Therefore the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) gets overruled by the affix ‘ण्य’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः)। Hence the present सूत्रम् 4-1-84 is necessary to re-prescribe the affix ‘अण्’ in order to get the correct forms used in the language.

उदाहरणम् –
पशुपतिर्देवतास्‍येति = पाशुपतम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Lord Śiva is the presiding deity.

पशुपति सुँ + अण् 4-2-24, 4-1-84
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-1-84 is a अपवादः to the affix ‘ण्य’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः which in turn is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्’।
= पशुपति सुँ + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘पशुपति सुँ + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पशुपति + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘पशुपति’।
= पाशुपति + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाशुपति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= पाशुपत् + अ 6-4-148
= पाशुपत । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाशुपत’ is an adjective. Here, it is qualifying the neuter noun हविः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ ।

वृत्तिः वाय्वादिदेवतावाचिभ्यः प्रथमान्तेभ्यः समर्थेभ्यः प्रातिपदिकेभ्यः ‘अस्य’ इत्यर्थे तद्धितो यत् प्रत्ययः स्यात् । To denote something of the deity ‘वायु’ or ‘ऋतु’ or ‘पितृ’ or ‘उषस्’, the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.
Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24).

उदाहरणम् –
वायुर्देवतास्‍येति = वायव्यम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Vāyu is the presiding deity.

वायु सुँ + यत् 4-2-31
= वायु सुँ + य 1-3-3, 1-3-9 Note: The letter ‘त्’ in the affix ’यत्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation (ref: 6-1-213 यतोऽनावः)।
Note: ‘वायु सुँ + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= वायु + य 2-4-71
The अङ्गम् ‘वायु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-146 to apply in the next step.
= वायो + य 6-4-146
= वायव्य 6-1-79

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायव्य’ is an adjective. Here, it is qualifying the neuter noun हविः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) ऋतुर्देवतास्‍येति = ऋतव्यम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Ṛtu is the presiding deity.

4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् ।

वृत्तिः अग्निदेवतावाचिनः प्रथमान्तात्समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकाद् ‘अस्य’ इत्यर्थे तद्धितो ढक् प्रत्ययः स्यात् । To denote something of the deity ‘अग्नि’, the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of the presiding deity ‘अग्नि’।
Note: The affix ‘ढक्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24).

उदाहरणम् –
अग्निर्देवतास्‍येति = आग्नेयम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Agni is the presiding deity.

अग्नि सुँ + ढक् 4-2-33
= अग्नि सुँ + ढ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘अग्नि सुँ + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अग्नि + ढ 2-4-71
Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
= अग्नि + एय् अ 7-1-2, 1-3-10
Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘अग्नि’।
= आग्नि + एय 7-2-118
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘आग्नि’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-146 to apply in the next step.
= आग्न् + एय 6-4-146
= आग्नेय । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आग्नेय’ is an adjective. Here, it is qualifying the neuter noun हविः, hence it declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः ।

वृत्तिः एते निपात्यन्ते । The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of father’s brother, mother’s brother, mother’s father and father’s father respectively.

उदाहरणम् – पितुर्भ्राता = पितृव्यः – uncle (father’s brother)
पितृ ङस् + व्यत् 4-2-36 Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘पितुर्भ्रातरि व्यत्’ – The affix ‘व्यत्’ is to be applied to get the final form ‘पितृव्य’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denotes father’s brother.
= पितृ ङस् + व्य 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘पितृ ङस् + व्य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पितृ + व्य 2-4-71
= पितृव्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

मातुर्भ्राता = मातुलः – uncle (mother’s brother)
मातृ ङस् + डुलच् 4-2-36 Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातुर्डुलच्’ – The affix ‘डुलच्’ is to be applied to get the final form ‘मातुल’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denotes mother’s brother.
= मातृ ङस् + उल 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
‘मातृ ङस् + उल’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मातृ + उल 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘डुलच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘मातृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-143 to apply in the next step.
= मात् + उल 6-4-143
= मातुल । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातुल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

मातुर्पिता = मातामहः – grandfather (mother’s father)
मातृ ङस् + डामहच् 4-2-36 Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातृपितृभ्यां पितरि डामहच्’ – The affix ‘डामहच्’ is to be applied to get the final forms ‘पितामह’ and ‘मातामह’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denote father’s father and mother’s father respectively.
= मातृ ङस् + आमह 1-3-3, -1-3-7, 1-3-9
‘मातृ ङस् + आमह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मातृ + आमह 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘मातृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-143 to apply in the next step.
= मात् + आमह 6-4-143
= मातामह । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातामह’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) पितुर्पिता = पितामहः – grandfather (father’s father)

वार्तिकम् (under 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः) मातरि षिच्च

When used in the sense of a mother, the affix ‘डामहच्’ (implied by the ready-made forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)।
Note: Some grammarians consider the forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ as belonging to the गौरादि-गणः, which enables the application of the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च। Hence according to them the above वार्तिकम् is not necessary.

उदाहरणम्
मातुर्माता = मातामही – grandmother (mother’s mother)
We start with the masculine form ‘मातामह’। Now we apply the appropriate feminine affix.
मातामह + ङीष् । 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातरि षिच्च’, the affix ‘डामहच्’ is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)। This enables 4-1-41 to apply.
= मातामह + ई 1-3-3, 1-3-8 and 1-3-9
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मातामह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18.This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= मातामह् + ई 6-4-148
= मातामही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातामही’ declines like नदी-शब्द:।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) पितुर्माता = पितामही – grandmother (father’s mother)

4-2-37 तस्य समूहः

वृत्तिः षष्ठ्यन्तात् समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकात् समूह इत्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्यात् । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base denoting that of which the collection is intended.

उदाहरणम् – काकानां समूहः = काकम् – a flock of crows

काक आम् + अण् 4-2-37, 4-1-83
= काक आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘काक आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= काक + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’आ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘काक’।
The letter ‘आ’ which is being substituted is already a वृद्धिः letter. But we still replace it with the same वृद्धिः letter ‘आ’ (by applying 7-2-117) as per the न्यायः ‘पर्जन्यवल्लक्षणप्रवृत्तिः’ – Just as rain falls equally on land as well as sea, similarly a rule is applied whether or not there is a net effect.
= काक ।
Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘काक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the forms –
१) वकानां समूहः = वाकम् – a fight of cranes
२) वृकाणां समूहः = वार्कम् – a pack of wolves

4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्

वृत्तिः समूह इत्यर्थे । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or ‘धेनु’।

Note: The compound ‘अचित्तहस्तिधेनु’ used in the form अचित्तहस्तिधेनोः (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) is a समाहार-द्वन्द्वः। The विग्रहः is as follows –
अचित्ताश्च हस्ती च धेनुश्चैषां समाहार: = अचित्तहस्तिधेनुः। Note: समाहारद्वन्द्वेऽपि पुंस्त्वं सौत्रम् – As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌, the compound ‘अचित्तहस्तिधेनु’ should be neuter in gender, but it has been irregularly used in the masculine in the सूत्रम्।
The compound ‘अचित्त’ (which is part of the larger compound अचित्तहस्तिधेनोः) is a नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः। The विग्रहः is as follows –
अविद्यमानं चित्तं येषां ते = अचित्ताः (अप्राणिवाचकाः) – (terms denoting) inanimate objects

उदाहरणम् –
अपूपानां समूहः = आपूपिकम् – a collection of buns

अपूप आम् + ठक् 4-2-47
= अपूप आम् + ठ् 1-3-3, 1-3-9 The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)। Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-3-50 ठस्येकः specifically prescribes the substitution ‘इक’ in place of the letter ‘ठ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that this letter ‘ठ्’ does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ठ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
‘अपूप आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अपूप + ठ् 2-4-71
Example continued under the सूत्रम् 7-3-50

7-3-50 ठस्येकः

वृत्तिः अङ्गात्‍परस्‍य ठस्‍येकादेशः स्‍यात् । ‘इक’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम्।

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 4-2-47
अपूप + ठ्
= अपूप + इक 7-3-50
Note: The affix ठक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.
= आपूप + इक 7-2-118
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘आपूप’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= आपूप् + इक 6-4-148
= आपूपिक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपूपिक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।
Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) शष्कुलीनां समूहः = शाष्कुलिकम् – a collection of cakes

हस्तिनां समूहः = हास्तिकम् – a herd of elephants

हस्तिन् आम् + ठक् 4-2-47
= हस्तिन् आम् + ठ् 1-3-3, 1-3-9 The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
‘हस्तिन् आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= हस्तिन् + ठ् 2-4-71
= हस्तिन् + इक 7-3-50
Note: The affix ठक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.
= हास्तिन् + इक 7-2-118
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘हास्तिन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.
= हास्त् + इक 6-4-144
= हास्तिक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हास्तिक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

धेनूनां समूहः = धैनुकम् – a herd of cows

धेनु आम् + ठक् 4-2-47
= धेनु आम् + ठ् 1-3-3, 1-3-9 The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
‘धेनु आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= धेनु + ठ् 2-4-71
Example continued under the सूत्रम् 7-3-51

7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्‌ कः

वृत्तिः इस्-उस्-उक्-तान्तात् परस्‍य ठस्‍य कः । ‘क’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम् ending in ‘इस्’ or ‘उस्’ or a letter of the उक्-प्रत्याहारः or the letter ‘त्’।

Example continued from the सूत्रम् 7-3-50
धेनु + ठ्
= धेनु + क 7-3-51
Note: The affix ठक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.
= धैनु + क 7-2-118
= धैनुक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण्
वृत्तिः समूह इत्यर्थे । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘भिक्षा’ etc (listed in the भिक्षादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: अण्ग्रहणं बाधकबाधनार्थम् । The affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-2-38 is a अपवादः to the affixes ‘ठक्’ etc., which in turn are अपवादाः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the prior सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

उदाहरणम् –
भिक्षाणां समूहः = भैक्षम् – alms (a collection of items got from begging)

भिक्षा आम् + अण् 4-2-38

Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’। But since ‘भिक्षा’ denotes an inanimate object, the default affix ‘अण्’ is over-ruled by the affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्। Finally the सूत्रम् 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’।
= भिक्षा आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘भिक्षा आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= भिक्षा + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘भिक्षा’।
= भैक्षा + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भैक्षा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= भैक्ष् + अ 6-4-148
= भैक्ष । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैक्ष’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-39 गोत्रोक्षोष्ट्रोरभ्रराजराजन्यराजपुत्रवत्समनुष्याजाद्वुञ् ।

वृत्तिः समूह इत्यर्थे । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘वुञ्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that either denotes a गोत्रम् (family/lineage) or is the word ‘उक्षन्’, ‘उष्ट्र’, ‘उरभ्र’, ‘राजन्’, ‘राजन्य’, ‘राजपुत्र’, ‘वत्स’, ‘मनुष्य’ or ‘अज’।

Note: In this सूत्रम्, the term ‘गोत्र’ is not used in the technical sense (as defined by 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्), but is used in the popular sense of family/lineage.

उदाहरणम् –
राज्ञां समूहः = राजकम् – a group of kings

राजन् आम् + वुञ् 4-2-39
Note: The affix ‘वुञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-39 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।
= राजन् आम् + वु 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: The letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘वुञ्’ facilitates the application of the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः। But in the present example, since the first vowel (‘आ’) of the term ‘राजन्’ already has the designation वृद्धिः (ref: 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्), 7-2-117 has no effect here.
= राजन् आम् + अक 7-1-1, 1-1-55
Note: ‘राजन् आम् + अक’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= राजन् + अक 2-4-71
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.
= राज् + अक 6-4-144, 1-1-64
= राजक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धुभ्यस्तल् ।

वृत्तिः समूह इत्यर्थे । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘तल्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has the word ‘ग्राम’ or ‘जन’ or ‘बन्धु’ as its base.

Note: In the काशिका the सूत्रम् 4-2-43 is given as ग्रामजनबन्धुसहायेभ्यस्तल्।

Note: तलन्तं स्त्रियाम् – Words ending in the affix ‘तल्’ are used in the language in the feminine gender.

उदाहरणम् –
ग्रामाणां समूहः = ग्रामता – a group of villages

ग्राम आम् + तल् 4-2-43
Note: The affix ‘तल्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-43 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।
= ग्राम आम् + त 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘ग्राम आम् + त’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= ग्राम + त 2-4-71
= ग्रामत । Note: तलन्तः (लिङ्गानुशासनम् १७) – Words ending in the तद्धित affix ‘तल्’ are used in the language in the feminine gender. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –
= ग्रामत + टाप् 4-1-4
= ग्रामत + आ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= ग्रामता 6-1-101
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामता’ declines like रमा-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) जनानां समूहः = जनता – a group of people
२) बन्धूनां समूहः = बन्धुता – a group of relatives

4-2-49 पाशादिभ्यो यः ।

वृत्तिः समूह इत्यर्थे । To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘य’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘पाश’ etc (listed in the पाशादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: Words derived by using this सूत्रम् are used in the feminine gender in the language.

उदाहरणम् –
पाशानां समूहः = पाश्या – a group of snares

पाश आम् + य 4-2-49
Note: The affix ‘य’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-49 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।
‘पाश आम् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पाश + य 2-4-71
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाश’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= पाश् + य 6-4-148
= पाश्य ।

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाश्या’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –
= पाश्य + टाप् 4-1-4
= पाश्य + आ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= पाश्या 6-1-101 Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाश्या’ declines like रमा-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) वातानां समूहः = वात्या – whirlwind (a group of winds)
२) तृणानां समूहः = तृण्या – a heap of straws
Note: The words ‘वात’ and ‘तृण’ are listed in the पाशादि-गणः।

4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद

वृत्तिः अण् स्यात् । To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has a base which denotes that (subject matter).

उदाहरणम् –
छन्दोऽधीते वेद वा छान्दसः – a person who studies or knows metrical science

छन्दस् अम् + अण् 4-2-59
छन्दस् अम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘छन्दस् अम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= छन्दस् + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘छन्दस्’।
= छान्दस । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘छान्दस’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

उदाहरणम् – व्याकरणधीते वेद वा = वैयाकरणः – a person who studies or knows grammar

व्याकरण अम् + अण् 4-2-59
व्याकरण अम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘व्याकरण अम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= व्याकरण + अ 2-4-71
Example continued under 7-3-3

7-3-3 न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच्

वृत्तिः पदान्ताभ्यां यकारवकाराभ्यां परस्य न वृद्धिः, किन्तु ताभ्यां पूर्वौ क्रमादैचावागमौ स्तः । A vowel that follows the letter ‘य्’ / ‘व्’ situated at the end of a पदम् does not take the वृद्धिः substitution (which would have been prescribed by 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः, 7-2-118 किति च), instead the augment ऐच् (letter ‘ऐ’ or ‘औ’) attaches prior to such a letter (‘य्’ or ‘व्’)।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् the augment ‘ऐ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘य्’ and the augment ‘औ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘व्’, as the case may be.

Example continued from 4-2-59

व्याकरण + अ
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to come for application to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’आ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘व्याकरण’। Even though the vowel ‘आ’ is already a वृद्धिः letter, the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः still comes for application as per the न्यायः ‘पर्जन्यवल्लक्षणप्रवृत्तिः’ – Just as rain falls equally on land as well as sea, similarly a rule is applied whether or not there is a net effect.
Since the letter ‘य्’ (which has come in place of the letter ‘इ’ as per the सूत्रम् 6-1-77 इको यणचि) in the अङ्गम् ‘व्याकरण’ (= ‘वि + आ + करण’) is at the end of a पदम्, the सूत्रम् 7-3-3 stops 7-2-117 here. And simultaneously, the augment ‘ऐ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘य्’।
= व् ऐ याकरण + अ 7-3-3, 1-3-10
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैयाकरण’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= वैयाकरण् + अ 6-4-148
= वैयाकरण । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैयाकरण’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 क्रतूक्थादिसूत्रान्ताट्ठक्) आख्यानाख्यायिकेतिहासपुराणेभ्यश्च

To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has as its base either –
i) the name of a narrative (आख्यानम्) or a story (आख्यायिका), or
ii) the word ‘इतिहास’ or ‘पुराण’।
Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 as well as this वार्तिकम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद।

उदाहरणम् – इतिहासमधीते वेद वा = ऐतिहासिकः – a historian (one who studies or knows history)

इतिहास अम् + ठक् As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-2-60) आख्यानाख्यायिकेतिहासपुराणेभ्यश्च

इतिहास अम् + ठ् 1-3-3, 1-3-9 Note: The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
‘इतिहास अम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= इतिहास + ठ् 2-4-71
= इतिहास + इक 7-3-50
Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। This allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.
= ऐतिहास + इक 7-2-118
The अङ्गम् ‘ऐतिहास’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.
= ऐतिहास् + इक 6-4-148
= ऐतिहासिक । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऐतिहासिक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-2-61 क्रमादिभ्यो वुन्

वृत्तिः तदधीते तद्वेदेत्येतयोरर्थयोः । To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘वुन्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has as its base ‘क्रम’ etc (listed in the क्रमादि-गण:) which denotes that (subject matter).

Note: The affix ‘वुन्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-61 is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद। The purpose of the letter ‘न्’ as इत् in the affix ‘वुन्’ is to assign the intonation of अनुदात्तः (as per the सूत्रम् 6-1-197 ञ्नित्यादिर्नित्यम्) to the resulting word.

उदाहरणम् –
क्रममधीते वेद वा = क्रमकः – a person who studies or knows Krama (a method of recitation of Vedic hymns)

क्रम अम् + वुन् 4-2-61
क्रम अम् + वु 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘क्रम अम् + वु’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= क्रम + वु 2-4-71
= क्रम + अक 7-1-1, 1-1-55
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘क्रम’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= क्रम् + अक 6-4-148
= क्रमक । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्रमक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) पदमधीते वेद वा = पदकः – a person who studies or knows Pada (a method of recitation of Vedic hymns)
२) मीमांसामधीते वेद वा = मीमांसकः – a person who studies or knows Mīmāṁsā (a system of philosophy)
Note: The words ‘पद’ and ‘मीमांसा’ are listed in the क्रमादि-गणः।

4-2-64 प्रोक्ताल्लुक्

वृत्तिः प्रोक्तार्थकप्रत्ययात्परस्याध्येतृवेदितृप्रत्ययस्य लुक् स्यात् । A तद्धित: affix which denotes the sense of ‘one who studies/knows’ takes the लुक् elision when it follows (a term that ends in) an affix which denotes the sense of ‘expounded’ (ref: 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम्)।
Note: स्त्रियां स्वरे च विशेषः – The सूत्रम् 4-2-64 makes a difference in the feminine gender and also in the intonation. (In the masculine gender we get the same form with or without the application of 4-2-64.)

उदाहरणम् – पाणिनीयम् (शास्त्रम्) अधीते वेद वा = पाणिनीयः – a person who studies or knows Pāṇinīyam (the treatise expounded by Pāṇini).

Note: पाणिनिना प्रोक्तम् = पाणिनीयम् (शास्त्रम्) – (the treatise) expounded by Pāṇini.
पाणिनीयम् (शास्त्रम्) is a तद्धितः form derived by adding the affix ‘छ’ (which is replaced by ‘इय’ as per the सूत्रम् 7-1-2) to the base ‘पाणिनि’ as per the सूत्रम् 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम् in conjunction with the सूत्रम् 4-2-114 वृद्धाच्छः।

पाणिनीय अम् + अण् 4-2-59
= पाणिनीय + अण् 2-4-71
Note: Since the base ‘पाणिनीय’ is derived using the सूत्रम् 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम्, it allows 4-2-64 प्रोक्ताल्लुक् to apply in the next step.
= पाणिनीय 4-2-64
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाणिनीय’ is an adjective. It declines like राम-शब्दः in the masculine gender.

चातुरर्थिकाः

Note: The affixes prescribed by the four rules starting from 4-2-67 तदस्मिन्नस्तीति देशे तन्नाम्नि through 4-2-70 अदूरभवश्च are called चातुरर्थिकाः affixes.

4-2-67 तदस्मिन्नस्तीति देशे तन्नाम्नि ।

वृत्तिः प्रथमान्तात् समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकात् तदस्मिन्नस्तीत्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्याद् देशनामधेये गम्यमाने – To denote the proper name of a place where something exists, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base that denotes that something.

उदाहरणम् –
उदुम्बराः सन्त्यस्मिन्देशे = औदुम्बरो देशः – The proper name of a place where fig trees are found

उदुम्बर जस् + अण् 4-2-67
= उदुम्बर जस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘उदुम्बर जस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= उदुम्बर + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’उ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘उदुम्बर’।
= औदुम्बर + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘औदुम्बर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= औदुम्बर् + अ 6-4-148
= औदुम्बर । Note: Since ‘औदुम्बर’ qualifies देशः which is in the masculine, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘औदुम्बर’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-2-68 तेन निर्वृत्तम् ।

वृत्तिः तृतीयान्तात् समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकात् तेन निर्वृत्तमित्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्याद् देशनामधेये गम्यमाने – To denote the proper name of a place that was built/established by someone, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a third case affix and has a base that denotes that someone (who built/established.)

उदाहरणम् –
कुशाम्बेन निर्वृत्ता नगरी = कौशाम्बी (नगरी) – Kauśāmbī (a city) built/established by (the king) Kuśāmba

कुशाम्ब टा + अण् 4-2-68
= कुशाम्ब टा + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘कुशाम्ब टा + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= कुशाम्ब अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’उ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘कुशाम्ब’।
= कौशाम्ब अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौशाम्ब’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= कौशाम्ब् अ । 6-4-148
= कौशाम्ब

Since ‘कौशाम्ब’ qualifies नगरी which is in the feminine, we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौशाम्बी’ by adding the feminine affix ङीप् as follows –
= कौशाम्ब + ङीप् 4-1-15
= कौशाम्ब + ई 1-3-3, 1-3-8, 1-3-9
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौशाम्ब’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18. This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= कौशाम्ब् + ई
= कौशाम्बी । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौशाम्बी’ declines like नदी-शब्दः।

Note: In the feminine, the affix ‘ङीप्’ applies as per the सूत्रम् 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in the letter ‘अ’ and
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has the letter ‘ट्’ as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

4-2-69 तस्य निवासः

वृत्तिः षष्ठ्यन्तात् समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकान् निवास इत्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्याद् देशनामधेये गम्यमाने – To denote the proper name of a place of residence, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that denotes the residents.

उदाहरणम् –
शिबीनां निवासो देशः = शैबः – a place of residence of (kṣatriyas named) Śibi

शिबि आम् + अण् 4-2-69
शिबि आम् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
‘शिबि आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= शिबि + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘शिबि’।
= शैबि + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘शैबि’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= शैब् + अ 6-4-148
= शैब । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैब’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

4-2-81 जनपदे लुप्
वृत्तिः जनपदे वाच्ये चातुरर्थिकस्य लुप् स्यात् । A चातुरर्थिकः affix takes the लुप् elision when a kingdom is to be denoted (by the derived form).

उदाहरणम् –
पञ्चालानां निवासो जनपदः = पञ्चाला: – a kingdom which is the place of residence of (kṣatriyas named) Pañcāla

पञ्चाल आम् + अण् 4-2-69
‘पञ्चाल आम् + अण्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पञ्चाल + अण् 2-4-71
Note: Since a kingdom is to be denoted, 4-2-81 applies in the next step.
= पञ्चाल 4-2-81
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-1-63 न लुमताङ्गस्य prevents the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः from applying.

As per the सूत्रम् 1-2-51 लुपि युक्तवद्व्यक्तिवचने – When an affix takes the लुप् elision, then the gender and number of the derived form follows that of the base.
Therefore, the derived प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पञ्चाल’ is declined in the masculine plural, complying with the gender and number of the base ‘पञ्चाल + आम्’। Hence the form is पञ्चालाः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) कुरूणां निवासो जनपदः = कुरवः – a kingdom which is the place of residence of (kṣatriyas named) Kuru
२) मगधनां निवासो जनपदः = मगधाः – a kingdom which is the place of residence of (kṣatriyas named) Magadha

4-2-70 अदूरभवश्च

वृत्तिः षष्ठ्यन्तात् समर्थात् प्रातिपदिकाददूरभव इत्यर्थे तद्धितोऽण् प्रत्ययः स्याद् देशनामधेये गम्यमाने । To denote the proper name of a place that is near (not too far away from) another place, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that denotes that other place.
Note: चकारेण प्रागुक्तास्त्रयोऽर्थाः संनिधाप्यन्ते । तेन वक्ष्यमाणप्रत्ययानां चातुरर्थिकत्वं सिध्यति – The ‘च’ mentioned in this सूत्रम् 4-2-70 has the force of associating the sense of this rule with those of the prior three rules (starting from 4-2-67 तदस्मिन्नस्तीति देशे तन्नाम्नि) to form a group of four senses. This enables the affixes prescribed by the following rules (4-2-71 onwards) to convey any of the four senses.

उदाहरणम् – विदिशाया अदूरभवम् = वैदिशम् (नगरम्) – the name of a city that is near (not too far away from) the city of Vidiśā

विदिशा ङस् + अण् 4-2-70
= विदिशा ङस् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
Note: ‘विदिशा + ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= विदिशा + अ 2-4-71
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘विदिशा’।
= वैदिशा + अ 7-2-117
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदिशा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
= वैदिश् + अ 6-4-148
= वैदिश

Since ‘वैदिश’ qualifies नगरम् which is in the neuter, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदिश’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

4-2-88 नडशादाड्ड्वलच्
वृत्तिः चातुरर्थिकः । To denote any of the four senses* prescribed by the rules 4-2-67 through 4-2-70, the तद्धितः affix ‘ड्वलच्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix) in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the base is either ‘नड’ or ‘शाद’।
Note: *Even though the affix ‘ड्वलच्’ prescribed by this rule could denote any of the four senses prescribed by the rules 4-2-67 through 4-2-70, in practice it is only used to denote the sense prescribed by the rule 4-2-67.
Note: The letter ‘च्’ in the affix ’ड्वलच्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation.

उदाहरणम् – नडाः सन्त्यस्मिन्निति = नड्वलः (देशः) – A place abounding in reeds.

नड जस् + ड्वलच् 4-2-88, 4-2-67
= नड जस् + वल 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
Note: ‘ नड जस् + वल’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= नड + वल 2-4-71
= नड् + वल 6-4-143, 1-1-64 Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड्वलच्’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।
= नड्वल
Since ‘नड्वल’ qualifies देशः which is masculine, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नड्वल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: ‘नड’ is also mentioned in the prior सूत्रम् 4-2-87 कुमुदनडवेतसेभ्यो ड्मतुप् which prescribes the affix ‘ड्मतुँप्’ in the same sense as 4-2-88. Hence an alternate form for नड्वलः is नड्वान्।

Similarly,
शादाः सन्त्यस्मिन्निति = शाद्वलः (देशः) – A place abounding in green grass.

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