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हंसः mNs

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at that beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?

सिंहः mNs

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?

बलाहकः mNs

Today we will look at the form बलाहकः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.55.26.

अन्तःपुरवरं राजन्ललनाशतसङ्‌कुलम् । विवेश पत्न्या गगनाद्विद्‌युतेव बलाहकः ।। १०-५५-२६ ।।
तं दृष्ट्वा जलदश्यामं पीतकौशेयवाससम् । प्रलम्बबाहुं ताम्राक्षं सुस्मितं रुचिराननम् ।। १०-५५-२७ ।।
स्वलङ्‌कृतमुखाम्भोजं नीलवक्रालकालिभिः । कृष्णं मत्वा स्त्रियो ह्रीता निलिल्युस्तत्र तत्र ह ।। १०-५५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विद्‌युता सह बलाहको मेघ इव ।। २६ ।। २७ ।। नीलाश्च वक्राश्च येऽलकास्त एवालयस्तैः । ह्रीता लज्जिताः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Like a cloud attended with lightning, Pradyumna descended with his spouse from the sky into the magnificent gynaeceum crowded with hundred of ladies (26). Seeing him, sombre as a cloud and clad in yellow silk, with exceptionally long arms and reddish eyes, wearing a winsome smile and a charming countenance, his lotus-like face graced with locks of dark-blue curly hair, and thinking him to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the ladies, so the story goes, hid themselves wherever they could (out of bashfulness) (27-28).

(1) वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘वारि ङस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) वारि + वाहक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) बलाहक । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक‘, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) बलाहक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) बलाहक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) बलाहक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Which compound in the verses has been composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः?

2. What type of compound is रुचिराननम् as used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound सुस्मितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुस्मित’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words पत्न्या and विद्‌युता used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the समासान्त: affix षच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without clouds lightning cannot occur.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to occur.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution णल् (in place of the affix तिप्) been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य been used in the verses?

पितरौ mNd

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

त्रयोदश nAp

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?

अष्टचत्वारिंशत् fNs

Today we will look at the form अष्टचत्वारिंशत्  fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.

वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/11/घृतपायससंयावम्-nns/

Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).

(1) अष्टौ च चत्वारिंशच्च = अष्टचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् – (Eight + forty =) forty-eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + चत्वारिंशत् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

(6) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater.

Note: As a convention in the language, numbers from विंशति: (twenty) up to नवति: (ninety) – as well as compound numbers ending in these numbers – are always used in the feminine (even when they’re adjectives to non-feminine terms.) They are used in the singular except when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – विंशतिर्नरा: = twenty men, विंशतिर्नार्य: = twenty women, विंशति: कुटुम्बानि = twenty families, नवनवतिर्नरा: = ninety-nine men, नवनवतिर्नार्य: = ninety-nine women, नवनवति: कुटुम्बानि = ninety-nine families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) विंशति: = twenty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे विंशती = two twenties (of men/women/families) = forty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) तिस्रो विंशतय: = three twenties (of men/women/families) = sixty (of men/women/families) etc.

In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is qualifying अहानि which is neuter and plural. But as per the above convention, ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is used in the feminine singular.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(7) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. What it the विग्रह: of the compound वियद्वित्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वियद्वित्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for the compound सकुटुम्बस्य used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

4. In which word(s) in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form उद्यमम् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our grammar-group there are forty-eight students.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर्ग’ for group.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’) in the form जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the form पञ्चदशभिः (used in the commentary)?

अष्टादश nAp

Today we will look at the form अष्टादश  nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.36.11.

गृहीत्वा शृङ्गयोस्तं वा अष्टादश पदानि सः । प्रत्यपोवाह भगवान्गजः प्रतिगजं यथा ।। १०-३६-११ ।।
सोऽपविद्धो भगवता पुनरुत्थाय सत्वर: । आपतत्स्विन्नसर्वाङ्गो निःश्वसन्क्रोधमूर्च्छितः ।। १०-३६-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्योपवाह प्रतिलोमं व्यनुदत् ।। ११ ।। अपविद्धोऽपक्षिप्तः । आपतदाद्रवत् स्विन्नानि स्वेदयुक्तानि सर्वाङ्गानि यस्य सः । क्रोधमूर्च्छितः क्रोधेन व्याप्तः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seizing him by the horns, the Lord actually pushed him back, like an elephant driving a rival elephant, to a distance of eighteen steps (11). Knocked down by the Lord, the bull quickly rose again and, filled with fury, rushed forward sweating all over and breathing hard (12).

(1) अष्टौ च दश च = अष्टादश – (Eight + ten =) Eighteen.

(2) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number eighteen. Here it is used as an adjective to पदानि, which is neuter. Therefore it is used in the neuter gender here.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(6) अष्टादशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) अष्टादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) अष्टादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a प्रादि-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form अपविद्ध: derived?

3. What it the विग्रह: of the compound स्विन्नसर्वाङ्ग: used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form गृहीत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I will be staying here for eighteen days.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form प्रत्यपोवाह?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the commentary?

द्वादश mNp

Today we will look at the form द्वादश mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.11.12.

तयोः समुच्चयो मासः पितॄणां तदहर्निशम् । द्वौ तावृतुः षडयनं दक्षिणं चोत्तरं दिवि ।। ३-११-११ ।।
अयने चाहनी प्राहुर्वत्सरो द्वादश स्मृतः । संवत्सरशतं नॄणां परमायुर्निरूपितम् ।। ३-११-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
षण्मासा अयनम्दिवीत्यस्योत्तरेणान्वयः ।। ११ ।। दिवीति देवानामहोरात्रे प्राहुःद्वादश मासाः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Both these fortnights, taken together, make one month, which constitutes a day and night of the Pitṛs (manes). Two months, taken together, go to make a Ṛtu (season); while an Ayana consists of six months. An Ayana is southerly and northerly by turns (according as the sun takes a southerly or northerly course), and the two Ayanas constitute the day and night of the gods in heaven. These are known as one year or twelve months (on earth) and a hundred years have been declared as the full life-span of human beings (11-12).

(1) द्वौ च दश च = द्वादश – (Two + ten =) Twelve.

See question 1.

(2) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘द्वि औ’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘द्वि औ + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) द्वि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्वादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्वादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number twelve. Here it is used as an adjective to ‘मास’, which is masculine. Therefore it is used in the masculine gender here.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) द्वादशन् + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) द्वादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) द्वादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. What is an alternate way (other than द्वन्द्वः) of deriving the compound द्वादश? Hint: Consider the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम्।

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः किम्? द्वित्राः। द्व्यशीतिः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्व्यष्टन इति किम्? पञ्चदश। Please explain.

4. Can you spot another (besides द्वादश) द्वन्द्वः compound in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine noun समुच्चय:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are eighteen chapters in the Bhagawad Geeta.”

Easy questions:

1. In which other word (besides द्वादश) has the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् been used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for नॄणाम्?

द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd

Today we will look at the form द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.22.6.

अथ स एष आत्मा लोकानां द्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण नभोवलयस्य कालचक्रगतो द्वादश मासान्भुङ्क्ते राशिसंज्ञान्संवत्सरावयवान्मासः पक्षद्वयं दिवा नक्तं चेति सपादर्क्षद्वयमुपदिशन्ति यावता षष्ठमंशं भुञ्जीत स वै ऋतुरित्युपदिश्यते संवत्सरावयवः ।। ५-२२-५ ।। अथ च यावतार्धेन नभोवीथ्यां प्रचरति तं कालमयनमाचक्षते ।। ५-२२-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स एव स्वगत्या मासादिव्यवहारकारणमित्याह । स एष लोकानामात्माद्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण मध्ये यन्नभोवलयमन्तरिक्षं तस्य मध्ये यत्कालचक्रं तद्गतः । राशिभिर्मेषादिभिः संज्ञा येषाम् । चैत्रादिसंज्ञास्तु चान्द्रमासानाम् । मासमाह । पक्षद्वयं मास इति चान्द्रेण मानेन । सपादं महानक्षत्रद्वयं सौरेण, दिवानक्तं चाहोरात्रमिति पित्र्येण । षष्ठमंशं राशिद्वयम् ।। ५ ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Now, entering (in the form of the sun) the wheel of Time (as symbolized by the stellar sphere) existing in the firmament between heaven and earth, the same Lord who is the soul of all living beings passes through twelve months, the (twelve) parts of a year, known by the names of the (twelve) signs of the zodiac (Meṣa, Vṛṣa and so on). The learned declare that a month is equivalent to a couple of fortnights (one bright and the other dark, according to the lunar calendar), a day and night (in the eye of the manes) and the period taken in traversing two constellations and a quarter (from the point of the sun). And the fraction of a year in which He (the sun-god) covers the sixth part (of His orbit) is called a Ṛtu (season) (5). And, again, they refer to the (duration of) time in which He traverses one-half of His passage through the heavens as an Ayana (a half-year) (6).

(1) द्यौश्च पृथिवी च = द्यावापृथिव्यौ – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘पृथिवी’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + पृथिवी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावापृथिवी । By 6-3-30 दिवसश्च पृथिव्याम् – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term ‘दिव्’ takes the substitution ‘दिवस्’ as well as ‘द्यावा’ when followed by ‘पृथिवी’ as the final term of the compound. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

See question 1.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावापृथिवी’ is feminine since the final member ‘पृथिवी’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी ।

(6) द्यावापृथिवी + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावापृथिव्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(8) द्यावापृथिव्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the alternate form of the compound ‘द्यावापृथिवी’?

2. In which Chapter of the Geeta has the compound द्यावापृथिव्यो: been used?

3. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Which word in the verses is formed using the affix ल्युट्?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound राशिसंज्ञान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राशिसंज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun illumines both heaven and earth.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √काश् (काशृँ दीप्तौ १. ७३४) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to illumine.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used?

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