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हंसः mNs

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

Note: ‘हंस’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at this beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The compound आदर्शचक्षुषोः (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’आदर्शचक्षुष्’, सप्तमी-द्विवचनम्) is a द्वन्द्व: compound.

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    आदर्शश्च चक्षुश्च = आदर्शचक्षुषी – mirror and eye

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’आदर्शचक्षुष्’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पवनाग्नि’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/03/10/पवनाग्निसमागमः-mns
    Except that step 6 is not relevant since the सूत्रम् 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः has no application here.
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’आदर्शचक्षुष्’ is neuter since the final member ‘चक्षुष्’ of the compound is neuter in gender. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like धनुष्-शब्द:। सप्तमी-द्विवचनम् is आदर्शचक्षुषोः।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा has been used in the form नष्टाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’नष्टा’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)। The निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’ is prevented from taking the augment ‘इट्’ in the form ‘नष्ट’ (feminine ‘नष्टा’) as per the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा – If a verbal root optionally allows an augment इट् in some case, then following that verbal root a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is prohibited from taking the augment इट्। Note: 7-2-15 applies here because as per 7-2-45 रधादिभ्यश्च – A आर्धधातुकम् affix beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः optionally gets the augment इट् when following the verbal root √रध् (रधँ हिंसासंराद्ध्योः ४. ९०) or √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१) or √तृप् (तृपँ प्रीणने ४. ९२) or √दृप् (दृपँ हर्षमोहनयोः ४. ९३) or √द्रुह् (द्रुहँ जिघांसायाम् ४. ९४) or √मुह् (मुहँ वैचित्त्ये ४. ९५) or √स्नुह् (ष्णुहँ उद्गिरणे ४. ९६) or √स्निह् (ष्णिहँ प्रीतौ ४. ९७).

    The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नष्ट’ is shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/03/नष्टाः-mnp/
    Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ’नष्टा’ as follows –
    नष्ट + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = नष्ट + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = नष्टा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?
    Answer: The affix णिच् has been elided in the form प्रतिबोधितः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रतिबोधित’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the answer to question 3 in the following comment for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रतिबोधित’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/01/15/अध्यात्मम्-nns/#comment-35152

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वस्थ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the verses.

    स्वस्मिन् तिष्ठति = स्वस्थः।

    ‘स्थ’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).
    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वस्थ’ is derived as follows:
    स्व ङि + स्था + क । By 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः – This rule is split into two parts. The first part is सुपि – When in composition with a पदम् which ends in a सुप् affix (ref. 4-1-2स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा..), a verbal root which ends in the letter ‘आ’ may take the affix ‘क’। (We don’t need the second part of the सूत्रम् in the present example.)
    Note: The term सुपि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘स्व ङि’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    = स्व ङि + स्था + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = स्व ङि + स्थ् + अ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च।
    = स्व ङि + स्थ ।
    We form a compound between ‘स्व ङि’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘स्थ’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘स्व ङि’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘स्व ङि’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘स्व ङि + स्थ’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = स्वस्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    In the masculine gender ‘स्वस्थ’ declines like राम-शब्दः। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is स्वस्थः।

    The सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form क्षेत्रज्ञः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’क्षेत्रज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary.
    Please see the answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form क्षेत्रज्ञः – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/09/कृतज्ञः-mns/#comment-5170

    5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?
    Answer: The form ध्यात्वा is derived from the verbal root √ध्यै (ध्यै चिन्तायाम् १. १०५६).

    ध्या + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले, 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति।
    Note: The common agent of the actions ध्यात्वा (having contemplated) and प्राप्तवान् (obtained) is हंसः (swan). The earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘contemplating’ which is denoted by √ध्यै and hence √ध्यै takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    = ध्या + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त्वा’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = ध्यात्वा ।

    ‘ध्यात्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।
    ध्यात्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = ध्यात्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Look at this beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।
    Answer: इमम् सुन्दरम् तुषारगौरम् हंसम् पश्य = इमं सुन्दरं तुषारगौरं हंसं पश्य।

    Easy questions:
    1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?
    Answer: The augment सीयुट् occurs in the form अवेक्षेत – derived from the verbal root √ईक्ष् (ईक्षँ दर्शने १. ६९४).

    The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    ईक्ष् + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्।
    = ईक्ष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ईक्ष् + त । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = ईक्ष् + सीयुट् त । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् – The affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment ‘सीयुट्’ at the beginning of the affix ‘त’।
    = ईक्ष् + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: In the augment सीयुट्, the letter ‘उ’ before the letter ‘ट्’ is उच्चारणार्थः (for pronunciation only.)
    = ईक्ष् + शप् + सीय् त । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = ईक्ष् + अ + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ईक्ष् + अ + ईय् त । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य।
    = ईक्ष् + अ + ईत । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्योर्वलि।
    = ईक्षेत । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः।

    ‘अव’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    अव + ईक्षेत = अवेक्षेत । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः has been used in the form आप – derived from the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६).

    Please see the answer to question 5 in the following comment for the derivation of the form आप – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/12/28/प्रययौ-3as-लिँट्/#comment-3077

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