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सिंहः mNs

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) as a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as the replacement when a झल् letter follows.

Note: ‘सिंह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ has been used in the compound सिंहनादम् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंहनाद’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the following verse of Chapter One in the गीता –
    तस्य सञ्जनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः |
    सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्‌ || 1-12||

    Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंहनाद’ is a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound, explained as –
    सिंहस्य नादः = सिंहनादः – the roaring of a lion

    2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
    Answer: As shown in the commentary we first form the following two बहुव्रीहिः compounds –
    i) हतान्यनीकानि यस्य सः = हतानीकः – one (Jarāsandha) whose forces were wiped out
    ii) अवशिष्टा असवः (एव) यस्य सः = अवशिष्टासुः – one (Jarāsandha) whose vital-breaths (alone) were left

    We now use the above two compounds to form the final कर्मधारयः compound as follows –
    हतानीकश्चासाववशिष्टासुश्च = हतानीकावशिष्टासुः – one (Jarāsandha) whose forces were wiped out, and whose vital-breaths (alone) were left

    The अलौकिक-विग्रहः of the compound ‘हतानीक’ is as follows –
    हत जस् + अनीक जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।
    The adjective ‘हत जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘हत जस् + अनीक जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = हत + अनीक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = हतानीक । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, जरासन्धः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीक’।
    We similarly form the compound ‘अवशिष्टासु’।

    The अलौकिक-विग्रहः of the final कर्मधारयः compound ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’ is as follows –
    हतानीक सुँ + अवशिष्टासु सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। Note: Here, the compound has been formed considering ‘हतानीक सुँ’ as an adjective to ‘अवशिष्टासु सुँ’। But it may also have been formed the other way (अवशिष्टासु सुँ + हतानीक सुँ)।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘हतानीक सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘हतानीक सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘हतानीक सुँ + अवशिष्टासु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = हतानीक + अवशिष्टासु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = हतानीकावशिष्टासु । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’ is used in the masculine since the latter member ‘अवशिष्टासु’ of the compound is used in the masculine. It declines like गुरु-शब्द:। द्वितीया-एकवचनम् is हतानीकावशिष्टासुम्।

    3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?
    Answer: The वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः finds application in the compound विरथम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विरथ’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    विगतो रथो यस्य सः = विरथः – one (Jarāsandha) whose chariot had gone away

    The अलौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    विगत सुँ + रथ सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे ।
    Note: The compound ‘विगत’ is a गति-समास: formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    The adjective ‘विगत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘विगत सुँ + रथ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = विगत + रथ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = विरथ । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः – A compound पदम् in which a ‘प्र’ etc term (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that is a कृदन्तम् (a participle formed by adding a कृत् affix to a verbal root) optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
    Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, जरासन्धः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विरथ’। It declines like राम-शब्द:। द्वितीया-एकवचनम् is विरथम्।

    4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘अ’ occurs in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ used in the compound कार्यचिकीर्षया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ कार्यचिकीर्षा’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)।

    The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ is derived from the desiderative form of the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०)
    Please see the answer to advanced question 1 for derivation of the सन्नन्त-धातुः ‘चिकीर्ष’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/09/तितरिषन्ति-3ap-लँट्/#comment-3978

    The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ is derived as follows –
    चिकीर्ष + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ – In order to form a feminine noun, the affix ‘अ’ is used following a derived verbal root (ending in an affix.) Note: The affix ‘अ’ has the आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows 6-4-48 to apply in the next step.
    = चिकीर्ष् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः।
    = चिकीर्ष । Note: Since the affix ‘अ’ has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, ‘चिकीर्ष’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = चिकीर्ष + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = चिकीर्ष + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चिकीर्षा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ’कार्यचिकीर्षा’ is a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound, explained as –
    कार्यस्य चिकीर्षा = कार्यचिकीर्षा – desire of accomplishing (His own) work

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
    Answer: The substitution ‘आ’ in the form महाबलम् is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is as follows –
    महद्बलं यस्य सः = महाबलः – one (Jarāsandha) who possessed great power
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/02/08/महायशाः-mns

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example महाबलः is qualifying जरासन्धः। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’। It declines like राम-शब्द:। द्वितीया-एकवचनम् is महाबलम्।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’
    Answer: वने सर्वे मृगाः सिंहात् बिभ्यति = वने सर्वे मृगाः सिंहाद्बिभ्यति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह – derived from the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१).

    Please see the following post for derivation of the form जग्राह – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/12/12/जग्राह-3as-लिँट्

    2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च has been used in the forms असवः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘असु’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) and अरातयः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अराति’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) ।

    असु + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…।
    = असु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = असो + अस् । By 7-3-109 जसि च – when the affix ‘जस्’ follows, there is a गुण: substitute for the (ending letter of a) अङ्गम् ending in a short vowel. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘उ’ of the अङ्गम् ‘असु’ takes the गुण: substitute ‘ओ’।
    = असव् + अस् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    = असवः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

    The form अरातयः is derived similarly.

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