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जीमूतम् mAs

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?


1 Comment

  1. 1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
    i. अव्ययीभाव:
    ii. तत्पुरुष:
    iii. बहुव्रीहि:
    iv. द्वन्द्व:
    Answer: The compound यथोपदिष्टम् is a अव्ययीभावः

    The लौकिक-विग्रह: is –
    यानि यान्युपदिष्टानि = यथोपदिष्टम् = whichever are prescribed

    The अलौकिक-विग्रह: is –
    उपदिष्ट जस् + यथा । By 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु।
    Note: The अव्ययम् ’यथा’ could be used in four meanings (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity. Here it has been used to indicate ‘वीप्सा’ – repetition.
    Note: As per some grammarians (particularly नागेश:) – एतत्सूत्रोपात्तानामव्ययानां नाव्ययीभाव: – The अव्ययानि that are specifically mentioned in this सूत्रम्‌ cannot be used (in their own meaning) to form a अव्ययीभाव: compound using this सूत्रम्‌। Hence the अव्ययं पश्चात् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of पश्चात्। Similarly the अव्ययं युगपत् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of यौगपद्यम्‌। And the next सूत्रम् 2-1-7 यथासादृश्ये should be used to compound the अव्ययं यथा itself in the meaning of यथा।
    = यथा + उपदिष्ट जस् । Here the term ‘अव्ययम्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु ends in the nominative case. Therefore the अव्ययम् ‘यथा’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Hence ‘यथा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘यथा + उपदिष्ट जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = यथा + उपदिष्ट । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = यथोपदिष्ट । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः।

    यथोपदिष्ट + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Note: By 1-1-41 अव्ययीभावश्च – The compounds that are अव्ययीभाव-समासाः are also designated as indeclinables. Hence 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः comes for the application. But then the specific rule 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः applies as explained in the following step.
    = यथोपदिष्ट + अम् । By 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – This सूत्रम् has two parts – (a) नाव्ययीभावादत: – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix does not take the लुक् elision (which would have been done by 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः) and (b) अम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix – other than a fifth case affix – is substituted by अम्।
    Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = यथोपदिष्टम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः।

    2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?
    Answer: The compound महावेगः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’महावेग’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) is a बहुव्रीहिः and the compound महाकपिः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’महाकपि’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) is a कर्मधारयः

    महान् वेगो यस्य स: = महावेगः – He who was possessed of great impetuosity.
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’महावेग’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/02/08/महायशाः-mns
    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example महावेगः is qualifying श्रीहनूमान्। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महावेग’। It declines like राम-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is महावेगः।

    महांश्चासौ कपिः = महाकपिः – mighty monkey
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’महाकपि’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महादेव’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/07/27/महादेव-mvs
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाकपि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘कपि’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like हरि-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is महाकपिः।

    3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ’’ is used to derive the word विघ्नः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’विघ्न’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) with the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

    Please see the following post for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विघ्न’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/04/02/विघ्नः-mns/

    4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?
    Answer: As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ cannot be compounded. Then how do we explain the compound पर्वतानामुत्तमः = पर्वतोत्तमः? The answer is – यस्मान्निर्धार्यते, यश्चैकदेशो निर्धार्यते, यश्च निर्धारणहेतुः – एतत्त्रितयसंनिधाने सत्येवायं निषेध इति ‘५-३-५७ द्विवचनविभज्योप-’ इति सूत्रे कैयटः। Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-3-57 द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ, the grammarian कैयटः (who has written a well-acclaimed commentary on the महाभाष्यम्) says that the prohibition ordained by the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे applies only when all the following three are present – i) the group/whole from which an element/part is singled out ii) the item that is singled out and iii) the cause or basis for singling out. In the example पर्वतानामुत्तमः = पर्वतोत्तमः compounding is not prohibited because ii) is not present. If the example were to be पर्वतानां मैनाक उत्तम: then the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे would prohibit पर्वतानाम् (‘पर्वत आम्’) from compounding with मैनाकः (‘मैनाक सुँ’)।

    5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a third case affix in the form उरसा (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’उरस्’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.
    Note: In the present example ‘उरस्’ (breast) is the instrument for the action पातयामास – felled.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”
    Answer: ह्यः आकाशे बहवः जीमूताः आसन् । अद्य न एकः अपि अस्ति = ह्य आकाशे बहवो जीमूता आसन् । अद्य नैकोऽप्यस्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिटि been used in the verses?
    Answer: The वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिटि has been used in the form पातयामास – derived from the causative form of the verbal root √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९).

    Please see the answer to easy question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the form पातयामास – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/02/05/अग्निसदृशम्-nas/#comment-35158

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद – derived from the verbal root √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६).

    Please see the answer to question 4 in the following comment for the derivation of the form ननाद – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/15/चेलुः-3ap-लिँट्/#comment-3197

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