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योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?


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