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त्रयोदश nAp

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ also appears in 7-1-53 त्रेस्त्रयः – The term ‘त्रि’ gets ‘त्रय’ as the replacement, when followed by the affix ‘आम्’।

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.
    Answer: As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।

    The विग्रहः of the compound त्र्यशीतिः is त्रयश्चाशीतिश्च। This is a द्वन्द्वः compound (not a बहुव्रीहि:) and does have ‘त्रि’ as its prior member, but still the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः does not apply because the final number is ‘अशीति’। Hence there is no substitution ‘त्रयस्’ in place of ‘त्रि’ here.

    3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?
    Answer: There are two possible ways to justify the substitution ‘आ’ (in place of the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘एक’) in this compound –
    i) ‘आत्‌’ इति योगविभागात् – Split the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः in to two parts – (a) आत्‌ and (b) महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – The ending letter of a पदम् is (sometimes) substituted by ‘आ’ when it is followed by a latter member (of a compound.) We can use this part (a) to justify the substitution ‘आ’ (in place of the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘एक’) in the compound ‘एकादशन्’।
    The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘आत्‌’ is taken into the part (b). Hence the meaning of part (b) is the same as the meaning of the entire सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः।
    ii) ‘5-3-49 प्रागेकादशभ्योऽच्छन्दसि’ इति निर्देशाद्वा – or we use the ज्ञापकम् (indication) given by the सूत्रम् 5-3-49 wherein पाणिनि: himself has used the compound ‘एकादशन्’ in the form एकादशभ्य:।

    Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the form एकादश – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/07/30/एकादश-fap

    4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् (अर्हसि) – derived from the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८).

    Please see the following post for the details of the derivation – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/02/21/वक्तुम्-ind

    5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the commentary?
    i. द्वन्द्व:
    ii. कर्मधारय:
    iii. बहुव्रीहि:
    iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
    Answer: The compound नित्यमूर्ते as used in the commentary is a बहुव्रीहिः।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    नित्या मूर्तिर्यस्य सः = नित्यमूर्तिः – the one (Lord) whose form is eternal

    The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’ is similar to the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भ्रष्टमति’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/12/10/भ्रष्टमतिः-mns
    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, नित्यमूर्तिः is qualifying the Lord. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:। सम्बुद्धि: is (हे) नित्यमूर्ते।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’
    Answer: अस्मिन् मासे त्रयोदश अहानि एव अवशिष्यन्ते = अस्मिन् मासे त्रयोदशाहान्येवावशिष्यन्ते।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?
    Answer: The verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) has been used in the form प्राहुः

    Please see the answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form प्राहुः – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/09/23/ब्रूयुः-3ap-विधिलिँङ्/#comment-1376

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति – derived from the verbal root √गै (गै शब्दे १. १०६५).

    Please see the answer to easy question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the form गायन्ति – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/01/11/योगिनः-mnp/#comment-15701

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