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नामाष्टशतम् nNs

Today we will look at the form नामाष्टशतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, King Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

(1) अष्टौ/अष्ट च शतं च = अष्टशतम् – (Eight + hundred =) hundred and eight.

(2) अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्टन् जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘शत सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्टन् + शत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now the ending letter (’न्’) of ‘अष्टन्’ would be replaced by the letter (‘आ’) as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
But this operation is blocked by the वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the present example.

Note: Now ‘अष्टन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound नाम्नामष्टशतम् = नामाष्टशतम्  – hundred and eight of names.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नामन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नामन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound, a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) नामन् + अष्टशत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Now ‘नामन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) नाम + अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘नाम’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.

(11) Since 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give नाम + अष्टशत = नामाष्टशत। (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।

Note: As a convention in the language, the number शतम् (hundred) – as well as compound numbers (like अष्टशतम्) ending in शतम् – are always used in the neuter (even when they’re adjectives to non-neuter terms.) They are used in the singular except (as in the present example) when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – शतं नरा: = hundred men, शतं नार्य: = hundred women, शतं कुटुम्बानि = hundred families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) शतम् = hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे शते = two hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) त्रीणि शतानि = three hundred (of men/women/families) etc.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the द्वन्द्वः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टशत’ is neuter since the final member ‘शत’ of the compound is neuter. Similarly, the तत्पुरुषः compound (नामाष्टशत) is neuter since the final member ‘अष्टशत’ of the compound is neuter.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(12) नामाष्टशत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) नामाष्टशत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(14) नामाष्टशतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?

3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu every day.”

Easy questions:

1. Why is शृणुष्व a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. In which word in the verses has the future tense affix लृँट् been used?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति also finds application in the form राजेन्द्र (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’राजेन्द्र’, सम्बुद्धिः)।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    राज्ञामिन्द्रः = राजेन्द्रः – king of kings.
    Note: The sixth case affix in राज्ञाम् is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

    The अलौकिक-विग्रह: is –
    राजन् आम् + इन्द्र सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘राजन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘राजन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘राजन् आम् + इन्द्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = राजन् + इन्द्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    Note: Now ‘राजन्’ has the designation पदम् as per 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.
    = राज + इन्द्र । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य ।
    Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘राज’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।

    The four categories are:
    1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
    2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
    3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
    4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.
    Since 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give राज + इन्द्र = राजेन्द्र । (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजेन्द्र’ is masculine since the latter member ‘इन्द्र’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

    2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?
    Answer: The कृत् affix खश् has been used in the form जनमेजयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’जनमेजय’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the following post for the derivation of the form जनमेजयः – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/24/जनमेजयः-mns

    3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
    i. द्वन्द्व:
    ii. कर्मधारय:
    iii. बहुव्रीहि:
    iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
    Answer: The compound अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’अद्‌भुतदर्शन’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) as used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहिः|

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    अद्भुतं दर्शनं यस्य सः = अद्भुतदर्शनः (सूर्यः) – one (the Sun) who has a wonderful appearance

    The अलौकिक-विग्रह: is –
    अद्भुत सुँ + दर्शन सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।
    The adjective ‘अद्भुत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘अद्भुत सुँ + दर्शन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = अद्भुतदर्शन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, सूर्यः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अद्भुतदर्शन’। It declines like राम-शब्द:। द्वितीया-एकवचनम् is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम्।

    4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?
    Answer: The forms अवहितः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’अवहित’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) and समाहितः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’समाहित’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) are derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११).

    धा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा। Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent of the action) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix ‘क्त’ may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
    (i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
    (ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
    (iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
    = धा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = हि + त । By 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः – The term ‘हि’ is substituted in place of the (entire) verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) when followed by an affix which is कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and begins with the letter ‘त्’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ’धा’ is replaced by ’हि’।

    अव + हित । ‘हित’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘अव’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = अवहित । ‘अवहित’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    Similarly,
    सम् + आङ् + हित । ‘हित’ is compounded with the उपसर्गौ ‘सम्’ and ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = समाहित । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    ‘समाहित’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    ‘अवहित’ and ‘समाहित’ are adjectives. In the present example, they are qualifying the masculine noun जनमेजयः। Hence they are used in the masculine here. These decline like राम-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is अवहितः and समाहितः।

    5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा – derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १).

    भू + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: The common agent of the actions भूत्वा (becoming) and शृणुष्व (listen) is त्वम् (जनमेजयः)। The earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘becoming’ which is denoted by √भू and hence √भू takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    = भू + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति – An affix which is either a गित् (has the letter ‘ग्’ as a इत्) or कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) does not take the augment इट् when following the verbal root √श्रि (श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४) or any verbal root which ends in a उक् letter. The verbal root ‘भू’ ends in the letter ‘ऊ’ (which belongs to the प्रत्याहार: ‘उक्’) and hence the सूत्रम् 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति applies to prevent the affix ‘क्त्वा’ (which has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) from taking the augment इट्।
    = भूत्वा । Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।

    ‘भूत्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।
    भूत्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = भूत्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu every day.”
    Answer: भगवतः विष्णोः नामाष्टशतम् भक्त्या प्रतिदिनम्/प्रत्यहम् जपेत् = भगवतो विष्णोर्नामाष्टशतं भक्त्या प्रतिदिनं/प्रत्यहं जपेत्।

    Easy questions:
    1. Why is शृणुष्व a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?
    Answer: In the धातु-पाठः, the verbal root √श्रु (श्रु श्रवणे १. १०९२) has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in a आत्मनेपदम् affix. Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √श्रु by default should take a परस्मैपदम् affix (in कर्तरि प्रयोग:)। Hence the form शृणुष्व – which ends in a आत्मनेपदम् affix – does not quite fit the rules of grammar.

    The grammatically correct form is शृणु।
    Please see the answer to question 4 in the following comment for the derivation of शृणु – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/06/जिगीषसि-2as-लँट्/#comment-3968

    2. In which word in the verses has the affix लृँट् been used?
    Answer: The affix लृँट् has been used in the form सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि – derived from the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८) or √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९).

    Please refer to the answer to question 4 in the following comment for the derivation of the form वक्ष्यामि – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/24/जनमेजयः-mns/#comment-5711

    ’सम्’ and ‘प्र’ are the उपसर्गौ (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    सम् + प्र + वक्ष्यामि
    = सं + प्र + वक्ष्यामि । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।
    = सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि/संप्रवक्ष्यामि । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य।

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