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योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

त्रयोदश nAp

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?

नामाष्टशतम् nNs

Today we will look at the form नामाष्टशतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, king Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

(1) अष्टौ च शतं च = अष्टशतम् – (Eight + hundred =) hundred and eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘शत सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + शत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now the ending letter (‘अ’) of ‘अष्ट’ would be replaced by the letter (‘आ’) as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
But this operation is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् –

(5) अष्टशत । वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the present example.

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound नाम्नामष्टशतम् = नामाष्टशतम्  – hundred and eight of names.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नामन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नामन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) नामन् + अष्टशत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Now ‘नामन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) नाम + अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘नाम’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.

(11) Since 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give नाम + अष्टशत = नामाष्टशत। (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।

Note: As a convention in the language, the number शतम् (hundred) – as well as compound numbers (like अष्टशतम्) ending in शतम् – are always used in the neuter (even when they’re adjectives to non-neuter terms.) They are used in the singular except (as in the present example) when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – शतं नरा: = hundred men, शतं नार्य: = hundred women, शतं कुटुम्बानि = hundred families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) शतम् = hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे शते = two hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) त्रीणि शतानि = three hundred (of men/women/families) etc.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the द्वन्द्वः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टशत’ is neuter since the final member ‘शत’ of the compound is neuter. Similarly, the तत्पुरुषः compound (नामाष्टशत) is neuter since the final member ‘अष्टशत’ of the compound is neuter.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(12) नामाष्टशत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) नामाष्टशत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(14) नामाष्टशतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?

3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu everyday.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘व’ in the form शृणुष्व?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?

अष्टचत्वारिंशत् fNs

Today we will look at the form अष्टचत्वारिंशत्  fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.

वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/11/घृतपायससंयावम्-nns/

Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).

(1) अष्टौ च चत्वारिंशच्च = अष्टचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् – (Eight + forty =) forty-eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + चत्वारिंशत् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

(6) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater.

Note: As a convention in the language, numbers from विंशति: (twenty) up to नवति: (ninety) – as well as compound numbers ending in these numbers – are always used in the feminine (even when they’re adjectives to non-feminine terms.) They are used in the singular except when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – विंशतिर्नरा: = twenty men, विंशतिर्नार्य: = twenty women, विंशति: कुटुम्बानि = twenty families, नवनवतिर्नरा: = ninety-nine men, नवनवतिर्नार्य: = ninety-nine women, नवनवति: कुटुम्बानि = ninety-nine families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) विंशति: = twenty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे विंशती = two twenties (of men/women/families) = forty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) तिस्रो विंशतय: = three twenties (of men/women/families) = sixty (of men/women/families) etc.

In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is qualifying अहानि which is neuter and plural. But as per the above convention, ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is used in the feminine singular.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(7) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. What it the विग्रह: of the compound वियद्वित्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वियद्वित्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for the compound सकुटुम्बस्य used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

4. In which word(s) in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form उद्यमम् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our grammar-group there are forty-eight students.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर्ग’ for group.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’) in the form जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the form पञ्चदशभिः (used in the commentary)?

अष्टादश nAp

Today we will look at the form अष्टादश  nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.36.11.

गृहीत्वा शृङ्गयोस्तं वा अष्टादश पदानि सः । प्रत्यपोवाह भगवान्गजः प्रतिगजं यथा ।। १०-३६-११ ।।
सोऽपविद्धो भगवता पुनरुत्थाय सत्वर: । आपतत्स्विन्नसर्वाङ्गो निःश्वसन्क्रोधमूर्च्छितः ।। १०-३६-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्योपवाह प्रतिलोमं व्यनुदत् ।। ११ ।। अपविद्धोऽपक्षिप्तः । आपतदाद्रवत् स्विन्नानि स्वेदयुक्तानि सर्वाङ्गानि यस्य सः । क्रोधमूर्च्छितः क्रोधेन व्याप्तः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seizing him by the horns, the Lord actually pushed him back, like an elephant driving a rival elephant, to a distance of eighteen steps (11). Knocked down by the Lord, the bull quickly rose again and, filled with fury, rushed forward sweating all over and breathing hard (12).

(1) अष्टौ च दश च = अष्टादश – (Eight + ten =) Eighteen.

(2) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number eighteen. Here it is used as an adjective to पदानि, which is neuter. Therefore it is used in the neuter gender here.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(6) अष्टादशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) अष्टादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) अष्टादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a प्रादि-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form अपविद्ध: derived?

3. What it the विग्रह: of the compound स्विन्नसर्वाङ्ग: used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form गृहीत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I will be staying here for eighteen days.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form प्रत्यपोवाह?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the commentary?

द्वादश mNp

Today we will look at the form द्वादश mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.11.12.

तयोः समुच्चयो मासः पितॄणां तदहर्निशम् । द्वौ तावृतुः षडयनं दक्षिणं चोत्तरं दिवि ।। ३-११-११ ।।
अयने चाहनी प्राहुर्वत्सरो द्वादश स्मृतः । संवत्सरशतं नॄणां परमायुर्निरूपितम् ।। ३-११-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
षण्मासा अयनम्दिवीत्यस्योत्तरेणान्वयः ।। ११ ।। दिवीति देवानामहोरात्रे प्राहुःद्वादश मासाः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Both these fortnights, taken together, make one month, which constitutes a day and night of the Pitṛs (manes). Two months, taken together, go to make a Ṛtu (season); while an Ayana consists of six months. An Ayana is southerly and northerly by turns (according as the sun takes a southerly or northerly course), and the two Ayanas constitute the day and night of the gods in heaven. These are known as one year or twelve months (on earth) and a hundred years have been declared as the full life-span of human beings (11-12).

(1) द्वौ च दश च = द्वादश – (Two + ten =) Twelve.

See question 1.

(2) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘द्वि औ’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘द्वि औ + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) द्वि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्वादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्वादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number twelve. Here it is used as an adjective to ‘मास’, which is masculine. Therefore it is used in the masculine gender here.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) द्वादशन् + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) द्वादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) द्वादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. What is an alternate way (other than द्वन्द्वः) of deriving the compound द्वादश? Hint: Consider the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम्।

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः किम्? द्वित्राः। द्व्यशीतिः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्व्यष्टन इति किम्? पञ्चदश। Please explain.

4. Can you spot another (besides द्वादश) द्वन्द्वः compound in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine noun समुच्चय:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are eighteen chapters in the Bhagawad Geeta.”

Easy questions:

1. In which other word (besides द्वादश) has the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् been used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for नॄणाम्?

द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd

Today we will look at the form द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.22.6.

अथ स एष आत्मा लोकानां द्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण नभोवलयस्य कालचक्रगतो द्वादश मासान्भुङ्क्ते राशिसंज्ञान्संवत्सरावयवान्मासः पक्षद्वयं दिवा नक्तं चेति सपादर्क्षद्वयमुपदिशन्ति यावता षष्ठमंशं भुञ्जीत स वै ऋतुरित्युपदिश्यते संवत्सरावयवः ।। ५-२२-५ ।। अथ च यावतार्धेन नभोवीथ्यां प्रचरति तं कालमयनमाचक्षते ।। ५-२२-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स एव स्वगत्या मासादिव्यवहारकारणमित्याह । स एष लोकानामात्माद्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण मध्ये यन्नभोवलयमन्तरिक्षं तस्य मध्ये यत्कालचक्रं तद्गतः । राशिभिर्मेषादिभिः संज्ञा येषाम् । चैत्रादिसंज्ञास्तु चान्द्रमासानाम् । मासमाह । पक्षद्वयं मास इति चान्द्रेण मानेन । सपादं महानक्षत्रद्वयं सौरेण, दिवानक्तं चाहोरात्रमिति पित्र्येण । षष्ठमंशं राशिद्वयम् ।। ५ ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Now, entering (in the form of the sun) the wheel of Time (as symbolized by the stellar sphere) existing in the firmament between heaven and earth, the same Lord who is the soul of all living beings passes through twelve months, the (twelve) parts of a year, known by the names of the (twelve) signs of the zodiac (Meṣa, Vṛṣa and so on). The learned declare that a month is equivalent to a couple of fortnights (one bright and the other dark, according to the lunar calendar), a day and night (in the eye of the manes) and the period taken in traversing two constellations and a quarter (from the point of the sun). And the fraction of a year in which He (the sun-god) covers the sixth part (of His orbit) is called a Ṛtu (season) (5). And, again, they refer to the (duration of) time in which He traverses one-half of His passage through the heavens as an Ayana (a half-year) (6).

(1) द्यौश्च पृथिवी च = द्यावापृथिव्यौ – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘पृथिवी’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + पृथिवी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावापृथिवी । By 6-3-30 दिवसश्च पृथिव्याम् – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term ‘दिव्’ takes the substitution ‘दिवस्’ as well as ‘द्यावा’ when followed by ‘पृथिवी’ as the final term of the compound. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

See question 1.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावापृथिवी’ is feminine since the final member ‘पृथिवी’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी ।

(6) द्यावापृथिवी + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावापृथिव्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(8) द्यावापृथिव्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the alternate form of the compound ‘द्यावापृथिवी’?

2. In which Chapter of the Geeta has the compound द्यावापृथिव्यो: been used?

3. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Which word in the verses is formed using the affix ल्युट्?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound राशिसंज्ञान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राशिसंज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun illumines both heaven and earth.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √काश् (काशृँ दीप्तौ १. ७३४) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to illumine.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used?

द्यावाभूम्योः fGd

Today we will look at the form द्यावाभूम्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.20.43.

अण्डमध्यगतः सूर्यो द्यावाभूम्योर्यदन्तरम् । सूर्याण्डगोलयोर्मध्ये कोट्यः स्युः पञ्चविंशतिः ।। ५-२०-४३ ।।
मृतेऽण्ड एष एतस्मिन्यदभूत्ततो मार्तण्ड इति व्यपदेशः । हिरण्यगर्भ इति यद्धिरण्याण्डसमुद्भवः ।। ५-२०-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विस्तरेणोक्तं ब्रह्माण्डमानं सर्वतोऽपि निरूपयति । अण्डमध्यगतः । किं तन्मध्यं तदाह । द्यावाभूम्योः पूर्वोत्तरकपालयोर्यदन्तरं मध्यस्थानम् । सर्वतः पञ्चविंशतिकोट्यः ।। ४३ ।। अण्डमध्यावस्थाने कारणं तन्नामनिर्वचनेनाह । मृतेऽचेतने एष सूर्यो वैराजरूपेण यस्मात्प्रविष्टः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – (The orb of) the sun is located in the middle of the egg (of this universe), which corresponds to the center of space lying between heaven (the upper shell of the cosmic egg) and earth (the lower shell of the cosmic egg.) The (extent of) space between (the orb of) the sun and (the outer shell of) the cosmic egg (on all sides) is twenty-five crore Yojanas (or two thousand million miles) (43). Because the sun-god appeared in this lifeless (inanimate) egg (as the Cosmic Being), the appellation of Mārtaṇḍa (मृते अण्डे भवः) has been applied to him (ever) since. He is (also) called Hiraṇyagarbha inasmuch as he (as the sun) represents the embryo (located) in (the centre of) the golden egg (of this universe) (44).

(1) द्यौश्च भूमिश्च = द्यावाभूमी – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । Note: ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘भूमि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + भूमि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावाभूमि । By 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा – When the final member of the compound follows, in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities there is a substitution of ‘द्यावा’ in the place of the term ‘दिव्’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावाभूमि’ is feminine since the final member ‘भूमि’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like मति-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी।

(6) द्यावाभूमि + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावाभूम्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(8) द्यावाभूम्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of देवताद्वन्द्वे come down in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा (used in step 5)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः been used in the verses?

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound पञ्चविंशतिः?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form विस्तरेण used in the commentary?

5. Where has the particle नञ् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Vāmana took away heaven and earth from king Bali.” Use the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘अप’ for ‘to take away.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्युः?

वाय्वग्नी mNd

Today we will look at the form वाय्वग्नी  mNd from महाभारतम् 5.61.18.

अश्विनावथ वाय्वग्नी मरुद्भिः सह वृत्रहा । धर्मश्चैव मया द्विष्टान्नोत्सहन्तेऽभिरक्षितुम् ।। ५-६१-१८ ।।
यदि ह्येते समर्थाः स्युर्मद्द्विषस्त्रातुमञ्जसा । न स्म त्रयोदश समाः पार्था दुःखमवाप्नुयुः ।। ५-६१-१९ ।।
नैव देवा न गन्धर्वा नासुरा न च राक्षसाः । शक्तास्त्रातुं मया द्विष्टं सत्यमेतद्ब्रवीमि ते ।। ५-६१-२० ।।

Translation – The two Aświns (celestial physicians), Vāyu (the wind-god), Agni (the fire-god), Indra (the slayer of Vṛtra) with the Maruts and Dharma himself would not dare protect them whom I dislike (18). Indeed if they (mentioned above) had been truly capable of protecting my enemies then the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) would not have suffered for thirteen years (19). I speak the truth when I tell you that neither the gods nor the Gandharvas nor the Asuras nor the Rākṣasas are capable of protecting my enemy (20).

(1) अग्निश्च वायुश्च = वाय्वग्नी or अग्निवायू – (the deities) Vāyu and Agni.

(2) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । Note: ‘वायु’ and ‘अग्नि’ both have two syllables. Both have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा। Hence as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वंद्वे घि either term could be placed in the prior position. In the present example ‘वायु सुँ’ is placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वायु + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वंद्वे च, (the ending letter of) ‘वायु’ should have taken the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ because here ‘वायु’ is the penultimate member of a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. But this substitution is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् – वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेध: – The substitution ‘आनँङ्’ (prescribed by 6-3-26) is prohibited if the द्वन्द्व: compound contains ‘वायु’ as the final or prior member.

(5) वाय्वग्नि । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाय्वग्नि’ is masculine since the final member ‘अग्नि’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) वाय्वग्नि + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) वाय्वग्नी । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

Questions:

1. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ (used in the form देवा: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verses?

3. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form त्रातुम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May the fire-god and the wind-god always protect all of us.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

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