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दत्तराज्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form दत्तराज्यः  mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.68.2.

यदसौ मातुलकुले दत्तराज्यः परं सुखी । भरतो वसति भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन मुदान्वितः ।। २-६८-२ ।।
तच्छीघ्रं जवना दूता गच्छन्तु त्वरितं हयैः । आनेतुं भ्रातरौ वीरौ किं समीक्षामहे वयम् ।। २-६८-३ ।।
गच्छन्त्विति ततः सर्वे वसिष्ठं वाक्यमब्रुवन् । तेषां तद् वचनं श्रुत्वा वसिष्ठो वाक्यमब्रवीत् ।। २-६८-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘Since the celebrated Bharata, on whom kingship has been bestowed (by the emperor urged by Kaikeyī), is leading a most happy and joyous life at his maternal uncle’s with his (younger) brother Śatrughna; therefore let swift messengers proceed quickly on horses to bring the two gallant brothers. What (else) can we thoughtfully consider?’ (2-3) Then all submitted to Vasiṣṭha as follows :- ‘Let the messengers depart.’ Hearing that reply of the counsellors, Vasiṣṭha (again) spoke as follows :- (4)

(1) दत्तं राज्यं यस्मै स: = दत्तराज्यः (भरतः) – He (Bharata) on to whom kingship has been bestowed.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम् – We can conclude that i) a बहुव्रीहि: compound denotes the sense of a पदम् (which is not part of the compound) whose case ending is other than the nominative and ii) the constituent members of a बहुव्रीहि: compound denote a common item.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दत्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘दत्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दत्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example भरत: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दत्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) दत्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दत्तराज्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) दत्तराज्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the participle ‘दत्त’ (used as part of the compound दत्तराज्य:) derived?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the forms भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Kaikeyī – on to whom two boons were bestowed – exiled Śrī Rāma for fourteen years.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’ Construct a (feminine) बहुव्रीहि-समास: for ‘one on to whom two boons were bestowed’ = दत्तौ वरौ यस्यै सा। Construct a शाकपार्थिवादि-समास: for ‘fourteen’ = ‘ten plus four’ = चतुरधिकानि दश।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘ईट्’ in the form अब्रवीत्?

त्यक्तराज्य: mNs

Today we will look at the form त्यक्तराज्यः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.3.

गुर्वर्थे त्यक्तराज्यो व्यचरदनुवनं पद्मपद्भ्यां प्रियायाः पाणिस्पर्शाक्षमाभ्यां मृजितपथरुजो यो हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् ।। ९-१०-३ ।।
वैरूप्याच्छूर्पणख्याः प्रियविरहरुषारोपितभ्रूविजृम्भत्रस्ताब्धिर्बद्धसेतुः खलदवदहनः कोसलेन्द्रोऽवतान्नः ।। ९-१०-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
‘ग्रन्थकोटिभिराकीर्णमद्भुतं रामविक्रमम् ।। अध्यायद्वयतो वक्ष्यन्नेकश्लोके समस्यति ।।’ इति । स कोशलेन्द्रः श्रीरामो नोऽस्मानवतात्पातु । कथंभूतः । यो गुर्वर्थे पितुः सत्यस्य पालनार्थं त्यक्तराज्यः सन् पद्मवदतिसुकुमाराभ्यां पद्भ्याम् । तदेवाह – प्रियायाः पाणिनापि स्पर्शे नास्ति क्षमा ययोस्ताभ्यां प्रतिवनं व्यचरत् । हरीन्द्रो हनुमान्सुग्रीवो वाऽनुजो लक्ष्मणस्ताभ्यां मृजितापनीता पथरुजा मार्गश्रमो यस्य । शूर्पणख्या वैरूप्यात्कर्णनासिकाच्छेदाद्धेतोः तया प्रलोभितेन रावणेनापहारात्प्रियेण कलत्रेण विरहस्तेन रुट् तयारोपितयोर्भ्रुवोर्विजृम्भेणैव त्रस्तोऽब्धिर्यस्मात् । ततस्तद्विज्ञापनेन बद्धः सेतुर्येन । ततः खला रावणादय एव दवो वनं तस्य दहनः ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having abandoned for the sake of (redeeming the pledge of) His father (King Daśaratha) (His title to) kingship, He roamed about from forest to forest by His lotus-feet, which were too soft (even) for the touch of the (petal-like) hands of His beloved Consort (Sītā), His fatigue from the journey being relieved (now and again) by (the blessed) Hanumān (the monkey chief) and His own younger brother (Lakṣmaṇa, who accompanied Him to the forest and kneaded His feet and other limbs along with Hanumān). (The deity presiding over) the ocean was terrified by the (very) display of His brows knit in anger excited by the (grievous) separation from His Darling (Sītā), which had been brought about by the mutilation of Śūrpaṇakhā (sister of Ravaṇa, the demon king of Laṅkā, so-called because she had nails as big as a winnowing basket, nay, whose nose and ears were chopped off by Lakṣmaṇa at the instance of Śrī Rāma, an incident which provoked Rāvaṇa to steal away Sītā in the absence of Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa). May that Lord of Kosala (Oudh) – who (subsequently) caused a bridge to be built across the sea and exterminated the host of wicked demons (including Rāvaṇa) even as wild fire consumes a (whole) forest – protect us! (4)

(1) त्यक्तं राज्यं येन स: = त्यक्तराज्यः (श्रीरामः) – He (Lord Śrī Rāma) who abandoned the kingship.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम् – We can conclude that i) a बहुव्रीहि: compound denotes the sense of a पदम् (which is not part of the compound) whose case ending is other than the nominative and ii) the constituent members of a बहुव्रीहि: compound denote a common item.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्यक्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीरामः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्यक्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) त्यक्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) त्यक्तराज्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) त्यक्तराज्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound which – like the compound ‘त्यक्तराज्य’ – has ‘त्यक्त’ as its first member?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a अव्ययीभाव: compound?

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound बद्धसेतुः used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form वैरूप्यात् used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the उपपद-समास: ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who has studied grammar would know the answer to (of) this question.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has studied grammar’ = अधीतं व्याकरणं येन स:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the commentary?

चतुर्भुजः mNs

Today we will look at the form चतुर्भुजः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.7.52.

निशम्य भीमगदितं द्रौपद्याश्च चतुर्भुजः । आलोक्य वदनं सख्युरिदमाह हसन्निव ।। १-७-५२ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
ब्रह्मबन्धुर्न हन्तव्य आततायी वधार्हणः । मयैवोभयमाम्नातं परिपाह्यनुशासनम् ।। १-७-५३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
चतुर्भुजोक्तेरयं भावः – भीमे तं हन्तुं प्रवृत्ते द्रौपद्यां च सहसा तान्निवारणे प्रवृत्तायामुभयोः संवरणायाविष्कृतचतुर्भुज इति । संदिहानस्य सख्युरर्जुनस्य ।। ५२ ।। वधार्हणो वधार्हः । मयैव शास्त्रकृता ‘ब्राह्मणो न हन्तव्यः’ तथा ‘आततायिनमायान्तमपि वेदान्तपारगम् ।। जिघांसन्तं जिघांसीयान्न तेन ब्रह्महा भवेत् ।।’ इति च वदता । तदुभयमप्यनुशासनं परिपालय ।। ५३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing the words of Bhīma as well as of Draupadī, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (who was distinguished by His four arms) looked into the face of his friend (Arjuna) and uttered the following words, as though smiling : (52) Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: Even a fallen Brāhmaṇa ought not to be slain and a ruffian surely deserves to be killed. Both these precepts have been taught by Me in the scriptures. Therefore, carry out both these commands of Mine (53).

(1) चत्वारो भुजा यस्य स: = चतुर्भुजः (श्रीकृष्णः) – He (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa) who has four arms.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) चतुर् जस् + भुज जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: When forming अव्ययीभाव: and तत्पुरुष: compounds only two terms may be combined at one time, while बहुव्रीहि: compounds may be formed by combining two or more terms simultaneously. For example – पञ्च गावो धनं यस्य = पञ्चगवधन: – One whose wealth is five cows.

See question 2.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ चतुर् जस्’ as well as ‘भुज जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘चतुर् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘चतुर् जस् + भुज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) चतुर्भुज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीकृष्णः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्भुज’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) चतुर्भुज + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) चतुर्भुज + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) चतुर्भुज: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Brahmā (who has four faces) granted many boons to Hiraṇyakaśipu.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has four faces’ = चत्वारि मुखानि यस्य स:।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods were afraid of Rāvaṇa (who has ten faces.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has ten faces’ = दशाननानि यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form परिपाहि?

2. From which verbal root is the form जिघांसीयात् (used in the commentary) derived?

अपार्थम् nAs

Today we will look at the form अपार्थम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.1.10.

राजोवाच
दृष्टश्रुताभ्यां यत्पापं जानन्नप्यात्मनोऽहितम् । करोति भूयो विवशः प्रायश्चित्तमथो कथम् ।। ६-१-९ ।।
क्वचिन्निवर्ततेऽभद्रात्क्वचिच्चरति तत्पुनः । प्रायश्चित्तमथोऽपार्थं मन्ये कुञ्जरशौचवत् ।। ६-१-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अत्र चोदयति द्वाभ्याम् । दृष्टं राजदण्डादि । श्रुतं नरकपातादि । ताभ्यामात्मनः पापमहितं जानन्नपि भूयः प्रायश्चित्तानन्तरं करोतिअथो अतः कारणाद्द्वादशाब्दादि कथं प्रायश्चित्तम् । तेन समूलस्य दोषस्यानिवृत्तेः । निवृत्तौ वा पुनश्च पापप्ररोहायोगादिति भावः ।। ९ ।। किंच क्वचित्कदाचिदभद्रात्पापान्निवर्ततेक्वचित्तदेव पुनराचरति । यथा कुञ्जरः स्नातोऽपि रजोभिरात्मानं मलिनी करोति तथा पापस्य पुनर्दुर्निवारत्वेन नरकपातस्यावश्यंभावित्वात्प्रायश्चित्तं व्यर्थमिति मन्ये ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – The king said: Since a man, though knowing a sin to be hurtful to his self on the testimony of what is actually seen and heard of by him, repeats it (even after atoning for it) having lost control (over his self), how could there be (any) atonement (for his sins) under the circumstances (so long as the sinful propensity is there)? (9) Now he is absolved from a sin and now he does it again. Such being the case, I account (all) atonement fruitless like the bath of an elephant (which throws dust on its body immediately after it has washed itself) (10).

(1) अपगतमर्थात् (अपगतम् अर्थात्) = अपार्थम् – fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अप + अर्थ ङसिँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या – Terms like ‘निर्’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रान्‍त’ (‘departed’/’gone past’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the ablative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ अप’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘ निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term निरादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘अप’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अप + अर्थ ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अप + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपार्थ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः, the gender of a प्रादि-समास: matches the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound.) In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपार्थ’ is neuter since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘प्रायश्चित्त’ which is neuter.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) अपार्थ + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) अपार्थ + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(8) अपार्थम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 18-22 of Chapter Five of the गीता can you spot a compound constructed using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या (used in step 2)?

2. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?

3. Which two compounds used in the verses are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the form निवृत्तौ used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot a प्रादि-समास: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The life of one who has no devotion is fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form करोति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the verses?

व्यर्थया fIs

Today we will look at the form व्यर्थया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.23.25.

देवर्षिपितृभूतानि ज्ञातीन्बन्धूंश्च भागिनः । असंविभज्य चात्मानं यक्षवित्तः पतत्यधः ।। ११-२३-२४ ।।
व्यर्थयार्थेहया वित्तं प्रमत्तस्य वयो बलम् । कुशला येन सिध्यन्ति जरठः किं नु साधये ।। ११-२३-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ऋषयो मनुष्ययज्ञब्रह्मयज्ञयोर्देवताः । देवपितृभूतानि इतरेषु । ज्ञातयः सगोत्राः । बन्धवो विवाहादिना संबद्धास्तान् । अन्यांश्च भागिनो भागार्हान् । आत्मानं चासंविभज्यान्नादिभिरसंतर्प्य ।। २४ ।। एवं विमृश्यानुतप्यमान आह – व्यर्थयार्थेहया प्रमत्तस्य मम वित्तादि गतमिति शेषः । येन वित्तादिना कुशला विवेकिनः सिध्यन्ति मुच्यन्ते । जरठो वृद्धः ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – He who guards his wealth like a Yakṣa, neither propitiates (by means of it) the gods, the Ṛṣis, the manes and (other) living beings, kinsmen, relatives and other claimants nor himself and goes down (to perdition) (24). My fortune, lifetime and strength, through which men of understanding achieve perfection, have (all) been carelessly spent, occupied as I have been with my fruitless endeavors in the cause of (amassing) wealth. What can I possibly accomplish now, as I have grown old? (25)

(1) वियुक्तार्थेन (वियुक्ता अर्थेन) = व्यर्था – fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)
Note: व्यर्था may also be derived as a बहुव्रीहि: compound as – विगतोऽर्थो यस्या: सा = व्यर्था।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वि + अर्थ टा । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अवादयः क्रुष्‍टाद्यर्थे तृतीयया – Terms like ‘अव’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रुष्‍ट’ (‘announced’/’sounded’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the instrumental case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘अवादयः क्रुष्‍टाद्यर्थे तृतीयया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term अवादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘वि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वि + अर्थ टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वि + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) व्यर्थ । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः, the gender of a प्रादि-समास: matches the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound.) In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्थ’ has to be used in the feminine since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘अर्थेहा’ which is feminine.

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्था’ by adding the appropriate affix.

(6) व्यर्थ + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(7) व्यर्थ + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) व्यर्था । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(7) व्यर्था + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(8) व्यर्था + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) व्यर्थे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘व्यर्था’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(10) व्यर्थया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ (used in the compound अर्थेहया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form प्रमत्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-12 अर्हः been used in the commentary?

5. In the commentary can you find a word in which the affix ‘णिच्’ has been elided?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the Aṣṭādhyāyī not even a single letter is useless (disjoint from purpose.)”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘यक्’ in the form मुच्यन्ते used in the commentary?

उपेन्द्रम् mAs

Today we will look at the form उपेन्द्रम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.23.23.

वेदानां सर्वदेवानां धर्मस्य यशसः श्रियः । मङ्गलानां व्रतानां च कल्पं स्वर्गापवर्गयोः ।। ८-२३-२२ ।।
उपेन्द्रं कल्पयांचक्रे पतिं सर्वविभूतये । तदा सर्वाणि भूतानि भृशं मुमुदिरे नृप ।। ८-२३-२३ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Nay,) for the prosperity of all he further made Lord Vāmana (the younger Brother of Indra), the custodian of the Vedas as well as of all the gods, of righteousness, wealth and fame, of (all) blessings and sacred vows, nay, of heaven and final beatitude (too), capable as He was to protect them (all). On that occasion all created beings rejoiced much, O protector of human beings! (22-23)

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु लोकादीनां पतिरिन्द्रोऽस्त्येव, सत्यम्, तथापि वेदादीनां कल्पं पालने दक्षं वामनमुपेन्द्रं कल्पयांचक्रे ।। २२ ।। २३ ।।

(1) उपगत इन्द्रम् = उपेन्द्र: – ‘gone to’ or ‘approached’ Indra, hence it means ‘younger brother’ of Indra

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) उप + इन्द्र अम् । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया – Terms like ‘अति’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रान्त’ (‘surpassed’/’transgressed’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the accusative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘उप’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term अत्यादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘उप’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘उप + इन्द्र अम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) उप + इन्द्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) उपेन्द्र । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः, the gender of a प्रादि-समास: matches the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound.) In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपेन्द्र’ is masculine since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘वामन’ which is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) उपेन्द्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) उपेन्द्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 15-20 of Chapter Seven of the गीता can you spot a compound composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the formation of the compound ‘सर्वदेव’ (used in the form सर्वदेवानाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix क्विँप् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पालन’ (used in the form पालने (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“With super-human effort, Śrī Hanumān reached Laṅkā.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्यम’ for ‘effort.’ Form a प्रादि-समास: for ‘super-human’ = अतिक्रान्तो मानुषम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इरे’ in the form ‘मुमुदिरे’?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the commentary?

प्रपितामहः mNs

Today we will look at the form प्रपितामहः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.19.

इति तस्यां स आधाय गर्भं सूर्यो दिवं गतः । सद्यः कुमारः सञ्जज्ञे द्वितीय इव भास्करः ।। ९-२४-३५ ।।
तं सात्यजन्नदीतोये कृच्छ्राल्लोकस्य बिभ्यती । प्रपितामहस्तामुवाह पाण्डुर्वै सत्यविक्रमः ।। ९-२४-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – So saying, the sun-god deposited his seed in her womb and returned to heaven. That very moment a male child – who was another sun as it were, was born of her without any travail. (35) Afraid of the world (however), she painfully consigned the child to the stream of a river. (Later on) your great grandfather, Pāṇḍu, of genuine valor duly married her (36).

(1) प्रगत: पितामह: = प्रपितामह: – advanced (‘gone ahead’) grandfather = great grandfather

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) प्र + पितामह सुँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया – Terms like ‘प्र’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘गत’ (‘gone’/’advanced’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the nominative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘प्र’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term प्रादय: ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘प्र’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘प्र + पितामह सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) प्र + पितामह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= प्रपितामह ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः, the gender is determined not by its final member but by the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound.) But in the present example this वार्तिकम् is not necessary because the compound ‘प्रपितामह’ is itself a noun. It is not qualifying any other noun. So the gender is the same as the gender of its latter member (‘पितामह’) which is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) प्रपितामह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) प्रपितामह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) प्रपितामह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया (used in step 2) been used in verses 31-34 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सौनाग-वार्तिकानि the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – अव्यवस्थया समासप्रसक्तौ व्यवस्थार्थं वचनानि। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – आदिशब्द उभयत्र प्रकारे। तेन दुराचारः पुरुषो दुष्पुरुष इत्यादि सिद्धम्। Please explain.

4. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?

5. Can you spot a गति-समास: in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Vyāsa was the great grandson of the sage Vasiṣṭha.”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form सञ्जज्ञे derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाह?

नमस्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form नमस्कृत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.6.2.

मैत्रेय उवाच
अथ देवगणाः सर्वे रुद्रानीकैः पराजिताः । शूलपट्टिशनिस्त्रिंशगदापरिघमुद्गरैः ।। ४-६-१ ।।
सञ्छिन्नभिन्नसर्वाङ्गाः सर्त्विक्सभ्या भयाकुलाः । स्वयम्भुवे नमस्कृत्य कार्त्स्न्येनैतन्न्यवेदयन् ।। ४-६-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अथ देवगणाः स्वयंभुवे न्यवेदयन्निति द्वितीयेनान्वयः ।। १ ।। शूलादिभिः संछिन्नानि त्रुटितानि भिन्नानि विदीर्णान्यङ्गानि येषाम् । सह ऋत्विग्भिः सभ्यैश्च वर्तमानाः ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Maitreya went on: Worsted by the forces of Rudra and stricken with fear, and having all their limbs mangled and broken by (the blows of) their tridents, Paṭṭiśas (a kind of spear), swords, maces, iron clubs and mallets, the hosts of divinities along with the priests officiating and assisting at the sacrifice (approached and) bowed to Brahmā (the self-born) and narrated the story to him in all details (1-2).

(1) नम: कृत्वा = नमस्कृत्य – having saluted.

नमस्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the अव्ययम् ‘नमस्’। ‘नमस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च – The designation ‘गति’ is optionally assigned to the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc when used in conjunction with the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

Note: As per the commentators, the साक्षात्प्रभृति-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations.
Note: च्व्यर्थवृत्तित्वं प्रायिकम् – the requirement that – the (optional) designation ‘गति’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च only applies when the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc are used in the same sense as that of the affix ‘च्वि’ – is प्रायिकम् meaning that it usually applies but is not universal. For example in नमस्कृत्य – here ‘नमस्’ (which is listed in the साक्षात्प्रभृति-गण:) gets the (optional) designation ‘गति’ even though it does not convey the same sense as that of the affix ‘च्वि’।

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘hosts of divinities’) is न्यवेदयन् (‘narrated.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

नमस् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नमस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘नमस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नमस् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) नमस् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) नमस् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) नमस् + कृ तुँक् य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) नमस् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) नमः + कृत्य । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(10) नमस्कृत्य । By 8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः – A विसर्ग: belonging to the term ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ is substituted by the letter ‘स्’ provided ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ and is followed by a letter of the कवर्ग: (‘क्’, ‘ख्’, ‘ग्’, ‘घ्’, ‘ङ्’) or पवर्ग: (‘प्’, ‘फ्’, ‘ब्’, ‘भ्’, ‘म्’)।

‘नमस्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(11) नमस्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) नमस्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः (used in step 10) been violated in Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘न्’ in the forms ‘छिन्न’ and ‘भिन्न’ (used as part of the compound सञ्छिन्नभिन्नसर्वाङ्गाः in the verses)?

5. From which verbal root is the word विदीर्णानि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विदीर्ण’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) – used in the commentary – derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having bowed to Śrī Rāma, Śrī Hanumān narrated to Him all what happened in Laṅkā.” Use the past participle ‘वृत्त’ for ‘happened.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘णिच्’ in the verses?

साक्षात्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form साक्षात्कृत्य  ind from the commentary on कुमारसम्भवम् 3.58.

भविष्यतः पत्युरुमा च शंभोः समाससाद प्रतिहारभूमिम् ।
योगात्स चान्तः परमात्मसंज्ञं दृष्ट्‌वा परं ज्योतिरुपारराम ।। ३.५८ ।।

सञ्जीवनी-टीका
भविष्यत इति । उमा च भविष्यतः पत्युः शम्भोः प्रतिहारभूमिं द्वारदेशं समाससाद । ‘स्त्री द्वार्द्वारं प्रतीहार:’ इत्यमरः । शंभुः च अन्तः [परमात्मसंज्ञम्] परमात्मेति संज्ञा यस्य तत् परं मुख्यम् । ‘परं दूरान्यमुख्येषु’ इति यादवः । ज्योतिः दृष्ट्वा साक्षात्कृत्य योगात् ध्यानात् । ‘योगः सन्नहनोपायध्यानसङ्गतियुक्तिषु’ इत्यमरः । उपारराम उपारतः । ‘व्याङ्परिभ्यो रमः’ इति परस्मैपदम् ।

Translation – Umā approached the entrance (of the abode) of Śambhu, her future Lord; at the same time, He too, having directly realized in Himself, the eternal light called Paramātman (the Supreme Self), desisted from contemplation (broke the Samādhi).

(1) असाक्षाद्भूतं यथा साक्षाद्भवति तथा कृत्वा = साक्षात्कृत्य – having made something evident which was not evident before. In the present context it means ‘having directly realized.’

See question 1.

साक्षात्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the अव्ययम् ‘साक्षात्’। ‘साक्षात्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च – The designation ‘गति’ is optionally assigned to the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc when used in conjunction with the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).
Note: च्व्यर्थ इति वाच्यम्‌ – The (optional) designation ‘गति’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च only applies when the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc are used in the same sense as that of the affix ‘च्वि’ (ref. 5-4-50 अभूततद्भावे कृभ्वस्तियोगे सम्पद्यकर्तरि च्विः) which is the sense of ‘transforming something in to that which it was not before.’

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘He’ (‘Śambhu’)) is उपारराम (‘desisted.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

साक्षात् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ साक्षात्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘साक्षात्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘साक्षात् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) साक्षात् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) साक्षात् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) साक्षात् + कृ तुँक् य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) साक्षात् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= साक्षात्कृत्य ।

‘ साक्षात्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) साक्षात्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) साक्षात्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. What is the alternate form for साक्षात्कृत्य?

2. In which word in the verse has the affix लृँट् been used?

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verse?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति apply in the form दृष्ट्‌वा? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

5. What kind of समास: is परमात्मा (used in the commentary)?
i. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. अव्ययीभाव:
iv. नञ्-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having directly realized the Self, one is never afraid.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the use of a परस्मैपदम् affix in the form उपारराम?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य been used in the verse?

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