Home » Example for the day » अपराह्णे mLs

Recent Comments

March 2015
M T W T F S S
« Feb   Apr »
 1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031  

अपराह्णे mLs

Today we will look at the form अपराह्णे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.21.

मां केशवो गदया प्रातरव्याद्गोविन्द आसङ्गवमात्तवेणुः । नारायणः प्राह्ण उदात्तशक्तिर्मध्यन्दिने विष्णुररीन्द्रपाणिः ।। ६-८-२० ।।
देवोऽपराह्णे मधुहोग्रधन्वा सायं त्रिधामावतु माधवो माम् । दोषे हृषीकेश उतार्धरात्रे निशीथ एकोऽवतु पद्मनाभः ।। ६-८-२१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दिनस्य षट्सु भागेषु क्रमेण प्रातरादिसंज्ञेषु रात्रेश्च प्रदोषादिसंज्ञेषु रक्षाप्रार्थनम् – मां केशव इति त्रिभिः । आसङ्गवं सङ्गवमभिव्याप्य ।। २० ।। त्रिधामा ब्रह्मादित्रिमूर्तिः श्रीमाधवःदोषे प्रदोषे आर्धरात्रे अर्धरात्रिपर्यन्ते काले निशीथे चैक एव पद्मनाभोऽवतु ।। २१ ।।

Gita Press translation – May Lord Keśava (the Supreme Deity the Ruler of even Brahmā and Śiva) protect me with His mace in the morning (the first of the six divisions of the day, each consisting of two hours); Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows), who holds a flute (in His hand), through the Saṅgava hours (the second part of the day); Lord Nārāyaṇa (who has His abode in water), who wields an uplifted javelin, in the forenoon and (the all-pervading) Lord Viṣṇu, carrying Sudarśana (the chief of all discuses) in His hand, at midday (20). May Lord Madhusūdana (the Slayer of the demon Madhu), who wields a terrible bow, protect me in the afternoon and Lord Mādhava (the Spouse of Goddess Lakṣmī), manifested in three glorious forms (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva), at dusk. May Lord Hṛṣīkeśa guard me in the first part of the night (and) Lord Padmanābha (who has a lotus spring from His navel), alone, during the second part (till midnight) as well as at midnight (during the third part) (21).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) अपरमह्नः = अपराह्ण: – PM (afternoon.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अपर सुँ + अहन् ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अपर सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अपर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अपर सुँ + अहन् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अपर + अहन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपर + अहन् + टच् । By 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ – Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) अपर + अहन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) अपर + अह्न + अ । By 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः – When followed by the affix ‘टच्’ (prescribed by 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌), the word ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’ provided ‘अहन्’ is preceded by any one of the following –
i) ‘सर्व’
ii) a word denoting a part (of the day)
iii) ‘संख्यात’
iv) a संख्या (numeral)
v) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: By 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’।
Note: एतच्छब्देन ‘अहःसर्वैकदेश-’ इति सूत्रस्थाः परामृश्यन्ते – The pronoun ‘एतद्’ (used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) refers to the terms listed in the सूत्रम् 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः। But अहःशब्द इह न गृह्यते, असंभवात् – the word ‘अहन्’ is not included because it is not possible to compound ‘अहन्’ with ‘अहन्’ itself. ‘पुण्य’ is also not included because of the prohibition contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-90 उत्तमैकाभ्यां च।

(8) अपराह्न + अ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अपराह्न’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(9) अपराह्न् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

(10) अपराह्ण । By 8-4-7 अह्नोऽदन्तात्‌ – The letter ‘न्’ of the term ‘अह्न’ (ref. 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) is substituted by the letter ‘ण्’ when preceded by a पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) which ends in the letter ‘अ’ and contains the cause – the letter ‘र्’ – for the substitution.
Note: The प्रथमा विभक्ति: (nominative case ending) used in the word अह्न: (in this सूत्रम् 8-4-7) actually stands for the षष्ठी विभक्ति: (genitive case ending.)

Note: Since ‘अहन्’ is neuter in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपराह्ण’ would also be neuter in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(11) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

अपराह्णे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपराह्ण’।

(12) अपराह्ण + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) अपराह्ण + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(14) अपराह्णे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकदेशिना किम्‌? पूर्वं नाभे: कायस्य। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् 2-2-1 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकाधिकरणे किम्‌? पूर्वश्छात्राणाम्‌। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a अव्ययीभाव: compound in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form गदया used in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्त’ (used as part of the compound आत्तवेणु: in the verses) derived? Hint: Recall the सूत्रम् 7-4-47 अच उपसर्गात्तः which we have seen in a prior post.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let us go to the temple in the afternoon.”

Easy questions:

1. What is the alternate form for षट्सु (used in the commentary)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकदेशिना किम्‌? पूर्वं नाभे: कायस्य। Please explain.
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे states that – (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

    The example पूर्वं नाभे: कायस्य is explained as नाभेर्यः पूर्वो भागः स कायस्यावयव: – the part of the body which is prior to the navel. कायः (body) is the एकदेशी (= अवयवी) – the one which consists of parts. On the other hand, नाभि: (navel) is the अवधिः (boundary – which demarcates the prior portion of the body) and is not the एकदेशिनी। Hence we cannot use the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे to form a compound between पूर्वम् and नाभे: because नाभि: is not the एकदेशिनी। (But we can certainly form a compound between पूर्वम् and कायस्य – to give पूर्वकाय: – because कायः is the एकदेशी।)

    2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् 2-2-1 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकाधिकरणे किम्‌? पूर्वश्छात्राणाम्‌। Please explain.
    Answer: The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे states अवयविना सह पूर्वादय: समस्यन्ते, एकत्वसंख्याविशिष्टश्चेदवयवी meaning that – (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

    In the example पूर्वश्छात्राणाम्‌ (front of the students) though छात्रा: (students) does have parts it is not singular and hence there is no compounding possible between पूर्व: and छात्राणाम्‌ using this सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे।

    3. Can you spot a अव्ययीभाव: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The form आसङ्गवम् used in the verses is a अव्ययीभाव: compound.

    लौकिक-विग्रह: –
    आसङ्गवम् = सङ्गवमभिव्याप्य – through the Saṅgava hours (the second part of the day)

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    सङ्गव ङसिँ + आङ् । By 2-1-13 आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः – The indeclinable ‘आङ्’ – when used in the meaning of मर्यादा ‘up to (but excluding) a limit’ or अभिविधि: ‘up to (and including) a limit’ – optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a fifth case affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound.
    Note: विना तेनेति मर्यादा – ‘up to (but excluding) a limit’ is termed as मर्यादा। सह तेनेत्यभिविधि: – ‘up to (and including) a limit’ is termed as अभिविधि:। In the current context ‘आङ्’ is used in the sense of अभिविधिः
    Note: As per 1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने, ‘आङ्’ has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here. Hence as per 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः, a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सङ्गव’ co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘आङ्’।
    = आङ् + सङ्गव ङसिँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Here the term ‘आङ्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-13 ends in the nominative case. Therefore ‘आङ्’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by 1-2-43. Hence ‘आङ्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
    Note: ‘ आङ् + सङ्गव ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = आङ् + सङ्गव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = आसङ्गव । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    आसङ्गव + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = आसङ्गव + अम् । By 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – This सूत्रम् has two parts – (a) नाव्ययीभावादत: – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix does not take the लुक् elision (which would have been done by 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः) and (b) अम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix – other than a fifth case affix – is substituted by अम्।
    1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = आसङ्गवम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः।

    4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form गदया used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a third case affix in the form गदया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’गदा’, तृतीय-एकवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

    In the present example ‘गदा’ (mace) is the instrument of the action अव्यात् (may protect).

    5. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्त’ (used as part of the compound आत्तवेणु: in the verses) derived? Hint: Recall the सूत्रम् 7-4-47 अच उपसर्गात्तः which we have seen in a prior post.
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्त’ is derived from the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

    आङ् + दा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा, 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः।
    Note: ‘दा + क्त’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = आ + दा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ (which would have been brought in by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः)।
    = आ + द् त् + त । By 7-4-47 अच उपसर्गात्तः – The letter ‘त्’ is substituted in place of the vowel (letter ‘आ’) of the verbal root √दा which has the घु-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-1-20), when the following conditions are satisfied – (i) √दा is preceded by a उपसर्ग: which ends in a अच् (vowel) and (ii) √दा is followed by an affix which is कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and begins with the letter ‘त्’।
    = आ + त् त् + त । By 8-4-55 खरि च।
    = आत्त/आत्त्त । By 8-4-65 झरो झरि सवर्णे। ‘आत्त/आत्त्त’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Let us go to the temple in the afternoon.”
    Answer: अपराह्णे मन्दिरम् गच्छाम = अपराह्णे मन्दिरं गच्छाम।

    Easy questions:
    1. What is the alternate form for षट्सु (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The alternate form for षट्सु is षट्त्सु – derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् ’षष्’।

    The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्।
    षष् + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = षष् + सु | अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: The अङ्गम् ‘षष्’ gets the designation पदम् here by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने। This allows 8-2-39 to apply in the next step.
    = षड् + सु | By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते।
    = षड् + धुँट् सु | By 8-3-29 डः सि धुँट् – The letter ‘स्’ following the letter ‘ड्’ gets the धुँट् augment optionally. [Note: परिभाषा – उभयनिर्देशे पञ्चमीनिर्देशो बलीयान् । Here ‘ड:’ ends in the पञ्चमी विभक्ति: (fifth case) while ‘सि’ ends in the सप्तमी विभक्ति: (seventh case.) Since पञ्चमी has greater force, the letter ‘स्’ takes the augment as per 1-1-67 तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य।]
    As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘धुँट्’ attaches to the beginning of the letter ‘स्’।
    = षड् + ध् सु | अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = षड् + त् सु | By 8-4-55 खरि च।
    = षट्त्सु | By 8-4-55 खरि च।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च has been in the form रात्रेः (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’रात्रि’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    रात्रि + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    Note: ‘रात्रि’ has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि। This allows 7-3-111 to apply below.
    = रात्रि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = रात्रे + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति। Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम्।
    = रात्रेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)
    = रात्रेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Posts

Topics