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मानुष्यम् nAs

Today we will look at the form मानुष्यम् nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.25.20.

सर्वथा तेन हीनाया रामेण विदितात्मना । तीक्ष्णं विषमिवास्वाद्य दुर्लभं मम जीवितम् ।। ५-२५-१७ ।।
कीदृशं तु महापापं मया देहान्तरे कृतम् । तेनेदं प्राप्यते दुःखं महादुःखं सुदारुणम् ।। ५-२५-१८ ।।
जीवितं त्यक्तुमिच्छामि शोकेन महता वृता । राक्षसीभिश्च रक्षन्त्या रामो नासाद्यते मया ।। ५-२५-१९ ।।
धिगस्तु खलु मानुष्यं धिगस्तु परवश्यताम् । न शक्यं यत्परित्यक्तुमात्मच्छन्देन जीवितम् ।। ५-२५-२० ।।

Gita Press translation – “My life, now that I have been separated from the aforesaid Śrī Rāma, a knower of the Self, is hard to sustain (even) as for one who has swallowed a virulent poison (17). What kind of major sin was actually perpetrated by me in another body (in a previous existence)? Due to that this terrible and most cruel major sorrow is being experienced by me (18). Beset (that I am) with this intense grief, I long to give up the ghost; for Śrī Rāma can never be reached by me so long as I am being guarded by the ogresses (19). Shame indeed be upon the human state and shame upon dependence on others, due to which it is not possible for me (even) to yield up life of my own (free) will!”(20)

मानुष्यम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मानुष्य’।

(1) मानुष्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) उभसर्वतसोः कार्या धिगुपर्यादिषु त्रिषु। द्वितीयाम्रेडितान्तेषु ततोऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘उभयत:’ or ‘सर्वत:’ or ‘धिक्’ or the duplicated terms ‘उपर्युपरि’, ‘अध्यधि’ or ‘अधोऽध:’ and may be seen being used in other instances also. Note: The duplication in ‘उपर्युपरि’, ‘अध्यधि’ and ‘अधोऽध:’ is by 8-1-7 उपर्यध्यधसः सामीप्ये।

In the present example ‘मानुष्य’ is co-occurring with ‘धिक्’, hence it takes a second case affix.

(2) मानुष्य + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।
Note: 7-1-24 अतोऽम् is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(3) मानुष्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) उभसर्वतसोः कार्या धिगुपर्यादिषु त्रिषु। द्वितीयाम्रेडितान्तेषु ततोऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते been used in the verses 30-40 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. In which other word (besides मानुष्यम्) in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) उभसर्वतसोः कार्या धिगुपर्यादिषु त्रिषु। द्वितीयाम्रेडितान्तेषु ततोऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते apply?

3. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the word तेन used in verse 18?
i) कर्तरि
ii) करणे
iii) हेतौ
iv) None of the above.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘क्त’ in the word जीवितम् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Shame on the son who does not attend to his (own) mother and father.” Form a सन्नन्त-धातु: by adding the affix सन् to the verbal root श्रु (श्रु श्रवणे १. १०९२) for ‘to attend to’ (literally ‘to desire to listen to.’) Note: Recall 1-3-57 ज्ञाश्रुस्मृदृशां सनः।

Easy questions:

1. In which तिङन्तं पदम् used in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix यक् in the form प्राप्यते?

सुरभेः f-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form सुरभेः f-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् verse 2-54.

कथं नु शक्योऽनुनयो महर्षेर्विश्राणनाच्चान्यपयस्विनाम् ।
इमामनूनां सुरभेरवेहि रुद्रौजसा तु प्रहृतं त्वयास्याम् ॥ 2-54॥

टीका
अनुनयः क्रोधापनयः। चकारो वाकारार्थः। महर्षेः अनुनयः च वान्यासां पयस्विनीनां दोग्ध्रीणां गवां [अन्यपयस्विनाम्] विश्राणनाद् दानात्। ‘त्यागो वितरणं दानमुत्सर्जनविसर्जने। विश्राणनं वितरणम्’ इत्यमरः। कथं नु शक्य:। न शक्य इत्यर्थः। अत्र हेतुमाह – इमां गां सुरभेः कामधेनोः। ‘पञ्चमी विभक्ते’ इति पञ्चमी। अनूनाम् अन्यूनाम् अवेहि जानीहि। तर्हि कथमस्याः परिभवो भूयादित्याह – रुद्रौजसेति। अस्यां गवि त्वया कर्त्रा प्रहृतं तु प्रहारस्तु। ‘नपुंसके भावे क्तः’। रुद्रौजसा ईश्वरसामर्थ्येन। न तु स्वयमित्यर्थः। ‘सप्तम्यधिकरणे च’ इति सप्तमी ।।

Translation – And how is this pacification of (the anger of) the great sage possible by the gift of ordinary milch-cows? Know that this cow is in no way inferior to Surabhi (the divine cow); that you have attacked her is only through the power of Rudra.

सुरभेः is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुरभि’।

(1) सुरभि + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-42 पञ्चमी विभक्ते – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a class or individual (thing or person) from which a separate class or individual is being distinguished (based on a genus or quality or action or name.)

In the present example ‘गो’ (‘cow’ – represented by the pronoun ‘इदम्’ (‘this’)) is being distinguished from ‘सुरभि’ (‘the divine cow’) based on the quality of being ‘अनूना’ (‘not inferior.’) Hence as per 2-3-42, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुरभि’ takes a fifth case affix.

‘सुरभि’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) सुरभि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सुरभे + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य the गुण: substitution takes the place of only the ending letter (in this case ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम् ‘सुरभि’।

(4) सुरभेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) सुरभेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 2-3-42 पञ्चमी विभक्ते (used in step 1) been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-42 पञ्चमी विभक्ते the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इदं च सूत्रं बुद्धिप्रकल्पितापायमाश्रित्यापादानप्रकरणे भाष्ये प्रत्याख्यातम्। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विश्राणन’ (used in the form विश्राणनात् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-114 नपुंसके भावे क्तः been used in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the form अस्याम् used in the verse?

6. How to say this in Sanskrit?
“The truth is better than silence.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर’ for ‘better.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form अवेहि derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः been used in the commentary?

धर्मभृताम् mGp

Today we will look at the form धर्मभृताम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.10.1.

शौनक उवाच
हत्वा स्वरिक्थस्पृध आततायिनो युधिष्ठिरो धर्मभृतां वरिष्ठः । सहानुजैः प्रत्यवरुद्धभोजनः कथं प्रवृत्तः किमकारषीत्ततः ।। १-१०-१ ।।
सूत उवाच
वंशं कुरोर्वंशदवाग्निनिर्हृतं संरोहयित्वा भवभावनो हरिः । निवेशयित्वा निजराज्य ईश्वरो युधिष्ठिरं प्रीतमना बभूव ह ।। १-१०-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
राज्यं चकारेत्युक्तं तत्र पृच्छति – हत्वेति । स्वस्य रिक्थे धने स्पर्धन्ते स्म ये ते तथा । यद्वा स्वरिक्थाय स्पृत्संग्रामो येषामत एव धनादिहरणादाततायिनस्तान्हत्वाप्रत्यवरुद्धभोजनो बन्धुवधदुःखेन संकुचितभोगो, राज्यलाभेन प्राप्तभोगो वा । कथं राज्ये प्रवृत्तः, प्रवृत्तो वा ततः किमकार्षीत् ।। १ ।। राज्यप्रवृत्तौ श्रीकृष्णस्य प्रीतिं पर्यालोच्य प्रवृत्त इत्याशयेनोत्तरमाह । वंशं कुरोः संरोहयित्वा परीक्षिद्रक्षणेन संरोह्याङ्कुरितं कृत्वा । कथंभूतम् । वंशदवाग्निनिर्हृतं वंश एव दवो वनं तस्मादुद्भूतो यः क्रोधरूपोऽग्निस्तेन निर्हृतं दग्धम् । निजराज्ये निवेश्य च ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śaunaka said: Having got rid of the ruffians who sought to rob him of his lawful heritage, how did Yudhiṣṭhira, the foremost of pious rulers, proceed (to rule his kingdom) with his younger brothers and what did he accomplish later, averse as he was to the gratification of his senses? (1) Sūta continued: Having revived the race of Kuru, that had been consumed by the fire of internecine feud – even as the wild fire produced by the rubbing of bamboo stems against one another consumes a whole forest of bamboos – and established Yudhiṣṭhira on his throne, the almighty Śrī Hari (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), the promoter of the world, rejoiced at heart (2).

धर्मभृताम् is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मभृत्’।

(1) धर्मभृत् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a group/whole from which an element/part is to be singled out based on a genus or quality or action or proper name.

In the present example, ‘युधिष्ठिर’ is being singled out from the group denoted by ‘धर्मभृत्’ (‘pious ruler’) based on the quality of being ‘वरिष्ठ’ (‘foremost.’) Hence the conditions for applying 2-3-41 are satisfied and a sixth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मभृत्’। (A seventh case affix could have also been used.)

1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

= धर्मभृताम् ।

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ (used in step 1) been used?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the उपपद-समास: ‘धर्मभृत्’?

3. Why is the form संरोहयित्वा not appropriate in the classical language? What is the correct form?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the word अनुजै: used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pāṇini is the foremost among grammarians.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैयाकरण’ for ‘grammarian.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘वुक्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form अकार्षीत्?

सत्त्वेषु nLp

Today we will look at the form सत्त्वेषु nLp from रघुवंशम् verse 2-14.

शशाम वृष्ट्यापि विना दवाग्निरासीद्विशेषा फलपुष्पवृद्धिः ।
ऊनं न सत्त्वेष्वधिको बबाधे तस्मिन्वनं गोप्तरि गाहमाने ॥ 2-14॥

टीका
गोप्तरि तस्मिन् राज्ञि वनं गाहमाने प्रविशति सति वृष्ट्या विनापिदवाग्निः वनाग्निः । ‘दवदावौ वनानले’ इति हैमः । शशाम । फलानां पुष्पाणां च वृद्धिः [फलपुष्पवृद्धिः]। विशेष्यत इति विशेषा अतिशयिता आसीत् । कर्मार्थे घञ्प्रत्ययः । सत्त्वेषु जन्तुषु मध्ये । ‘यतश्च निर्धारणम्’ इति सप्तमी । अधिकः प्रबलो व्याघ्रादिः ऊनं दुर्बलं हरिणादिकं न बबाधे ।।

Translation – As soon as he – the protector – entered the forest, the forest-fire was extinguished even without a shower; there was an abundant growth of fruits and flowers and the strong among the beasts did not torment the weak.

सत्त्वेषु is the सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सत्त्व’।

(1) सत्त्व + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a group/whole from which an element/part is to be singled out based on a genus or quality or action or proper name.

In the present example, ‘अधिक’ (‘strong’) as well as ‘ऊन’ (‘weak’) is being singled out from the group denoted by ‘सत्त्व’ (‘beast.’) Hence the conditions for applying 2-3-41 are satisfied and a seventh case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सत्त्व’। (A sixth case affix could have also been used.)

(2) सत्त्व + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सत्त्वे + सु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(4) सत्त्वेषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ (used in step 1) been used for the first time in Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. What are the alternate forms for गोप्तरि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गोप्तृ’, पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)? (Hint: Consider the सूत्रम् 7-2-44 स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा and the सूत्रम् 3-1-31 आयादय आर्धधातुके वा।)

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form वृष्ट्या?

4. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna became the best among the archers.” Use the कृत् affix क्विँप् to form a उपपद-समास: for ‘archer’ (= ‘one who bears a bow’ = धनुर्बिभर्ति।)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीत्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् been used in the verses?

हैहयानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form हैहयानाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.15.17.

श्रीबादरायणिरुवाच
हैहयानामधिपतिरर्जुनः क्षत्रियर्षभः । दत्तं नारायणस्यांशमाराध्य परिकर्मभिः ।। ९-१५-१७ ।।
बाहून्दशशतं लेभे दुर्धर्षत्वमरातिषु । अव्याहतेन्द्रियौजःश्रीतेजोवीर्ययशोबलम् ।। ९-१५-१८ ।।
योगेश्वरत्वमैश्वर्यं गुणा यत्राणिमादयः । चचाराव्याहतगतिर्लोकेषु पवनो यथा ।। ९-१५-१९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कार्तवीर्यार्जुनेन कृतमपराधं वक्तुं तस्य दर्पहेतुमैश्वर्यादिकमाह – हैहयानामिति षड्भिः – परिकर्मभिः परिचर्याभिर्दत्तं दत्तात्रेयमाराध्य ।। १७ ।। अव्याहतमिन्द्रियादिकं च लेभे ।। १८ ।। यत्र यस्मिन्नैश्वर्येऽणिमादयो गुणाः ।। १९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka replied: Having propitiated Lord Datta (better known as Dattātreya), a part manifestation of Lord Nārāyaṇa, through acts of worship, Arjuna, the jewel among the Kṣatriyas and the then ruler of the Haihayas, had secured a thousand arms, formidableness in the eyes of foes, uninterrupted soundness of the senses and organs of action, affluence, glory, prowess, fame and bodily strength, mastery of Yoga and superhuman power which was characterized by virtues such as the capacity to assume an atomic form. His movement being unimpeded (everywhere), he went about the worlds like the wind (17-19).

हैहयानाम् is the षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हैहय’।

(1) हैहय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘स्वामी’ (master) or ‘ईश्वर’ (lord) or ‘अधिपति’ (ruler) or ‘दायाद’ (heir) or ‘साक्षिन्’ (witness) or ‘प्रतिभू’ (guarantor) or ‘प्रसूत’ (offspring.)
In the present example, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हैहय’ is co-occurring with अधिपति:। Hence the condition for applying 2-3-39 is satisfied and a sixth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हैहय’। (A seventh case affix could have also been used.)
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 2.

(2) हैहय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ

(3) हैहय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) हैहयानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’ ।

Questions:

1. Where may the सूत्रम् 2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च (used in step 1) be applied in the first ten verses of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – षष्ठ्यामेव प्राप्तायां पाक्षिक-सप्तम्यर्थं वचनम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘दायमादत्ते’ इति दायादः। सोपसर्गादप्यादन्तादत एव निपातनात्कः। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix तुमुँन् in the form वक्तुम् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Indra is the ruler of the gods.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि apply in the form चचार? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

राज्ञः mGS

Today we will look at the form राज्ञः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.8.10.

एकदा सुरुचेः पुत्रमङ्कमारोप्य लालयन् । उत्तमं नारुरुक्षन्तं ध्रुवं राजाभ्यनन्दत ।। ४-८-९ ।।
तथा चिकीर्षमाणं तं सपत्न्यास्तनयं ध्रुवम् । सुरुचिः शृण्वतो राज्ञः सेर्ष्यमाहातिगर्विता ।। ४-८-१० ।।
न वत्स नृपतेर्धिष्ण्यं भवानारोढुमर्हति । न गृहीतो मया यत्त्वं कुक्षावपि नृपात्मजः ।। ४-८-११ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तयोः प्रियाप्रियत्वे प्रपञ्चयन् ध्रुवचरित्रमाह पञ्चभिरध्यायैः । सुरुचेः पुत्रमुत्तमसंज्ञं लालयन् ।। ९ ।। तथा अङ्कारोहणं चिकीर्षमाणम् ।। १० ।। गर्वोक्तिमेवाह त्रिभिः – नेति । नृपतेर्धिष्ण्यमासनं नृपात्मजोऽपि भवान्नारोढुमर्हति ।। ११ ।।

Gita Press translation – On a certain day, while fondling Suruci’s son, prince Uttama, whom he had seated on his lap, the king (Uttānapāda) did not welcome Dhruva, who too sought to climb to his lap (9). To Dhruva, her co-wife’s son, thus striving, Suruci, who was exceedingly proud (of the king’s attentions), spitefully spoke (as follows), the king (quietly) listening :- (10) “O child, you are not fit to ascend the royal throne, in as much as, though sprung from the king’s loins, you were not conceived by me (11).

राज्ञः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्’।

(1) राजन् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे – A sixth case also (in addition to a seventh case affix) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action, provided there is a sense of disrespect/disregard (‘in spite of.’)
Note: In this sense, the genitive absolute is used more often than the locative absolute.

In the present example, the प्रातिपदिकम् (‘राजन्’) which denotes the agent (the king) whose action of शृण्वतः (listening) gives an indication of another action (सुरुचिः आह – Suruci spoke) and there is a sense of disrespect/disregard. Hence the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे are satisfied and the प्रातिपदिकम् (‘राजन्’) takes a sixth case affix. (It could have also taken a seventh case affix.)

(2) राजन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(3) राज्न् + अस् । By 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः – There is an elision of the letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ when
i) the ‘अन्’ belongs to a अङ्गम् and
ii) the ‘अन्’ is (immediately) followed by a ‘स्वादि’ affix (ref. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌) which is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with the letter ‘य्’ or a vowel (अच्)।

(4) राज्न् + अ: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(5) राज्ञः । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः – When the letter ‘स्’ or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (‘त्’, ‘थ्’, ‘द्’, ‘ध्’, ‘न्’) comes in contact with either the letter ‘श्’ or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’), then it is replaced respectively by ‘श्’, च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’)।

Questions:

1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे is – अनादराधिक्ये भावलक्षणे षष्ठीसप्तम्यौ स्त: । Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – केवलभावलक्षणे सप्तम्येव, अनादराधिक्ये तु षष्ठीसप्तम्याविति निष्कर्षः। Please explain.

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-16 अज्झनगमां सनि been used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘प्’ in the form आरोप्य?

4. From which verbal root is form गृहीत: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृहीत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) derived?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसन’ (used in the form आसनम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In spite of the father watching, the boy hit (his) brother.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-119 अच्च घेः been used in the verses?

रामे mLs

Today we will look at the form रामे mLs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.90.1.

तथोक्तवति रामे तु तस्य जन्म तदद्भुतम् । उवाच लक्ष्मणो भूयो भरतश्च महायशाः ।। ७-९०-१ ।।
इला सा सोमपुत्रस्य संवत्सरमथोषिता । अकरोत्किं नरश्रेष्ठ तत्त्वं शंसितुमर्हसि ।। ७-९०-२ ।।
तयोस्तद्वाक्यमाधुर्यं निशम्य परिपृच्छतोः । रामः पुनरुवाचेमां प्रजापतिसुते कथाम् ।। ७-९०-३ ।।
पुरुषत्वं गते शूरे बुधः परमबुद्धिमान् । संवर्तं परमोदारमाजुहाव महायशाः ।। ७-९०-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – On Śrī Rāma describing his (Purūravā’s) wonderful birth, Lakṣmaṇa and Bharata the famous one said again : “O best among men, please tell us what Ilā did after staying a year with the son of Soma (Budha).” (1-2) Hearing those sweet words of those two, (Lakṣmaṇa and Bharata) who eagerly asked him, Śrī Rāma again described the story of the son of Prajāpati (Ila) (3). When (Ilā) had regained manhood, the very wise one and possessed of fame, Budha, reckoned the very noble Saṁvarta (Ṛṣi) (4).

रामे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राम’।

(1) राम + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
Note: A सप्तमी used in this manner is called भावलक्षण-सप्तमी or भाव-सप्तमी or सत्-सप्तमी or सति-सप्तमी। In English it is called Locative Absolute.
Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle (here ‘उक्तवत्’) – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् (here the agent ‘राम’) which denotes the agent/object of the action – also takes the seventh case affix.

(2) राम + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) रामे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the first twenty verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in रामे) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form संवत्सरम् used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘त्वा’) in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When I read the Geeta all my doubts vanished.” Use the verbal root √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१) for ‘to vanish.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-109.html">7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘उ’ been used?

अन्येषु mLp

Today we will look at the form अन्येषु mLp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.18.13.

भ्रमणैर्लङ्घनैः क्षेपैरास्फोटनविकर्षणैः । चिक्रीडतुर्नियुद्धेन काकपक्षधरौ क्वचित् ।। १०-१८-१२ ।।
क्वचिन्नृत्यत्सु चान्येषु गायकौ वादकौ स्वयम् । शशंसतुर्महाराज साधु साध्विति वादिनौ ।। १०-१८-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
काकपक्षाश्चूडाकरणात्प्राक्तनकेशाः । भ्रमणादिप्रकारैर्नियुद्धेन बाहुयुद्धेन चिक्रीडतुः ।। १२ ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Wearing side-locks (after the fashion of the day), the two Brothers now diverted Themselves by revolving (in pairs with Their hands clasped together), long jumps, putting the weight, slapping the arms, tug of war and wrestling (12). Sometimes, while others danced, the two Brothers Themselves sang or sounded the instruments or applauded the dancers, O great king, by exclaiming “Well done! Bravo!” (13)

अन्येषु is पुंल्लिङ्गे सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्य’।

(1) अन्य + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
Note: A सप्तमी used in this manner is called भावलक्षण-सप्तमी or भाव-सप्तमी or सत्-सप्तमी or सति-सप्तमी। In English it is called Locative Absolute.
Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle (here ‘नृत्यत्’) – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् (here the agent ‘अन्य’) which denotes the agent/object of the action – also takes the seventh case affix.

(2) अन्य + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) अन्ये + सु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(4) अन्येषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in verses 20-25 of Chapter Eight of the गीता?

2. In the verses can you spot a word in which the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) has been used?

3. In which sense has the third case in भ्रमणैः, लङ्घनैः, क्षेपैः, आस्फोटनविकर्षणैः and नियुद्धेन been used?
i. कर्तरि
ii. करणे
iii.हेतौ
iv. None of the above

4. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गायक’ (used in the form गायकौ (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-द्विवचनम्)) in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् used in लङ्घनैः (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लङ्घन’, तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“While the body perishes the Self does not perish.” Use the verbal root √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to perish.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अतुस्’ in the form ‘शशंसतुः’?

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