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नाम्ना nIs

Today we will look at the form नाम्ना nIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.3.24.

नरदेवत्वमापन्नः सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया । समुद्रनिग्रहादीनि चक्रे वीर्याण्यतः परम् ।। १-३-२२ ।।
एकोनविंशे विंशतिमे वृष्णिषु प्राप्य जन्मनी । रामकृष्णाविति भुवो भगवानहरद्भरम् ।। १-३-२३ ।।
ततः कलौ सम्प्रवृत्ते सम्मोहाय सुरद्विषाम् । बुद्धो नाम्नाजनसुतः कीकटेषु भविष्यति ।। १-३-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
रामावतारमाह – नरेति । नरदेवत्वं राघवरूपेण प्राप्तः सन् । अतः परमष्टादशे ।। २२ ।। रामकृष्णावतारमाह – एकोनेति विंशतितम इति वक्तव्ये तकारलोपश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । रामकृष्णावित्येवंनामनी जन्मनी प्राप्य ।। २३ ।। बुद्धावतारमाह – तत इति । अजनस्य सुतः । ‘जिनसुत’ इति पाठे जिनोऽपि स एव । कीकटेषु मध्ये गयाप्रदेशे ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then again (in the eighteenth descent) He assumed the form of a ruler of men (Śrī Rāma) with a view to accomplishing the purpose of the gods and performed heroic feats like bridging the ocean and so on (22). In the nineteenth and the twentieth the Lord was born among the Vṛṣṇis as Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and relieved the earth of its burden (23). When Kali sets in, He will be born in Magadha (North Bihar) as Buddha, son of Ajana, with a view to deluding the enemies of gods (24).

नाम्ना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नामन्’।

(1) नामन् + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) ‘प्रकृति’ etc. The list ‘प्रकृति’ etc is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. तेन ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्णश्चरितेन दान्त:’ इत्यादि सिद्धम्। This explains usages such as ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्ण: Sutīkṣṇa by name’ and ‘चरितेन दान्त: naturally restrained.’

(2) नामन् + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) नाम् न् + आ = नाम्ना । By 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः – There is an elision of the letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ when
i) the ‘अन्’ belongs to a अङ्गम् and
ii) the ‘अन्’ is (immediately) followed by a स्वादि-प्रत्यय: which is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with the letter ‘य्’ or a vowel (अच्)।

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ (used a part of the compound सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया) derived?

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवतार’ (used as part of the compound रामावतारम् in the commentary)?

5. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“My name is Satish.” Paraphrase to “I am Satish by name.”

6. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“People living in India are vegetarian for the most part.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in भविष्यति?

2. Is there an alternate form for जन्मनी (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’, द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्)?

पुष्पैः nIp

Today we will look at the form पुष्पैः nIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.16.29.

तस्याक्षिभिर्गरलमुद्वमतः शिरस्सु यद्यत्समुन्नमति निःश्वसतो रुषोच्चैः । नृत्यन्पदानुनमयन्दमयाम्बभूव पुष्पैः प्रपूजित इवेह पुमान्पुराणः ।। १०-१६-२९ ।। तच्चित्रताण्डवविरुग्णफणातपत्रो रक्तं मुखैरुरु वमन्नृप भग्नगात्रः । स्मृत्वा चराचरगुरुं पुरुषं पुराणं नारायणं तमरणं मनसा जगाम ।। १०-१६-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पुनरपि रुषा उच्चैर्निःश्वसतो यद्यत्समुन्नमति तत्तत्पदाघातेनानुनमयन्निहास्मिन्नवसरे हृष्टैर्गन्धर्वादिभिः शेषासनः पुराणः पुरुष इव यशोदानन्दनः पुष्पैः प्रपूजितः । यद्वा तदा गन्धर्वादिभिः पुष्पैः प्रपूजितो गोपैः पुराणः पुमानिव दृष्ट इति । यद्वा पुष्पैः प्रपूजित इव प्रसन्नः सन्दमयाम्बभूव ।। २९ ।। अरणं शरणम् ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Continuing to dance (with untiring zeal) Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the most ancient Person) subdued the cobra, successively bending under His foot whichever of the heads of the snake – that was ejecting poison through its eyes and violently hissing in rage – would rise itself. (With His feet bespattered with the drops of blood ejected from the eyes of the serpent) the Lord appeared as though devotedly worshipped with flowers (29). With its umbrella-like hoods crushed by the Lord’s weird dance and its limbs shattered (due to the expansion of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s body,) and spouting copious blood through its mouths, the serpent (now) thought of Lord Nārāyaṇa, the most ancient Person, the adored of the mobile as well as of the immobile creation, and mentally sought Him as its protector (30).

पुष्पैः is तृतीया-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुष्प’।
Here ‘पुष्प’ has the करण-सञ्ज्ञा by the 1-4-42 साधकतमं करणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action gets the designation करणम् (instrument.) Note: The instrument is the most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action because immediately after the use of the instrument the action is accomplished.

The participle प्रपूजितः has expressed the object पुराणः पुमान् (श्रीकृष्णः)। The instrument ‘पुष्प’ has not been expressed. Hence ‘पुष्प’ takes the third case affix (‘भिस्’) by 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

(1) पुष्प + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया

(2) पुष्प + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ऐस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) पुष्पैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(4) पुष्पैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has a third case affix been used करणे (to denote the instrument of the action) in the last five verses of Chapter 13 of the गीता?

2. In which other words (besides पुष्पैः) in the verses has a third case affix been used करणे (to denote the instrument of the action)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used in the verses?

4. In which of the following senses has the first case affix been used in उच्चैः?
(i) प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे (ii) लिङ्गमात्राधिक्‍ये (iii) परिमाणमात्राधिक्‍ये (iv) वचनमात्रे

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘न्’ in प्रसन्नः (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Some have attained liberation by renunciation alone, some others by knowledge alone.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-81 आमः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form पदा (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) derived?

वायुना mIs

Today we will look at the form वायुना mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

यथा मेढीस्तम्भ आक्रमणपशवः संयोजितास्त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः सवनैर्यथास्थानं मण्डलानि चरन्त्येवं भगणा ग्रहादय एतस्मिन्नन्तर्बहिर्योगेन कालचक्र आयोजिता ध्रुवमेवावलम्ब्य वायुनोदीर्यमाणा आकल्पान्तं परिचङ्क्रमन्ति नभसि यथा मेघाः श्येनादयो वायुवशाः कर्मसारथयः परिवर्तन्ते एवं ज्योतिर्गणाः प्रकृतिपुरुषसंयोगानुगृहीताः कर्मनिर्मितगतयो भुवि न पतन्ति ॥ ५-२३-३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मेढीस्तम्भे बद्धा धान्याक्रमणपशवो बलीवर्दाः । कर्म सारथिः सहायो येषाम् ॥ ३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Just as (pairs of) oxen, trampling corn (in order to thresh it) while (remaining) tied to a post in the middle of a threshing-floor, walk round in their respective spheres, in three circles (gradually receding from that post,) so the host of luminaries including the planets – fastened as they are to the aforesaid wheel (revolving movement) of Time either in the inner circle (remote from the earth) or in the outer one (nearer the earth) and propelled by the wind (called Pravaha and referred to passage 8 of the Discourse XXI) – revolve round the pole-star as the pivot till the end of a Kalpa (the life-time of the three worlds) in three courses (northward, southward and along the equator.) (And just) as clouds and birds such as the hawk move about in the sky, suspended in the air and helped by their destiny (which keeps them floating in the air and prevents them from falling down,) so the hosts of luminaries (which are no other than particular Jīvas appearing in those form) – brought into existence by the union of matter and Spirit (occasioned by the destiny responsible for their assuming such forms) and reaping the fruit yielded by their (past) actions – (move about in the air and) do not fall to the ground (3).

This verse has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/31/परिचङ्क्रमन्ति-3ap-लँट्/

वायुना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायु’।
Here ‘वायु’ has the कर्तृ-सञ्ज्ञा by the 1-4-54 स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता। The participle उदीर्यमाणा: has expressed the object भगणा: and not ‘वायु’। Hence ‘वायु’ takes the third case affix (‘टा’) by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

(1) वायु + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया। ‘वायु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) वायु + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) वायुना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनभिहिते किम्? हरि: करोति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in बद्धा: (used in the commentary)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa was killed by Śrī Rāma.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“We are all being propelled by destiny.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैव’ for ‘destiny.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in परिवर्तन्ते?

मन्दम् nAs

Today we will look at the form मन्दम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

सूत उवाच
पृथयेत्थं कलपदैः परिणूताखिलोदयः । मन्दं जहास वैकुण्ठो मोहयन्निव मायया ।। १-८-४४ ।।
तां बाढमित्युपामन्त्र्य प्रविश्य गजसाह्वयम् । स्त्रियश्च स्वपुरं यास्यन्प्रेम्णा राज्ञा निवारितः ।। १-८-४५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कलानि मधुराणि पदानि येषु तैर्वाक्यैः परिणूतः स्तुतोऽखिल उदयो महिमा यस्य सः । णु स्तुतावित्यस्मात् । परिणुतेति वक्तव्ये दीर्घश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । मन्दमीषत् । तस्य हास एव माया । वक्ष्यति हि ‘हासो जनोन्मादकरी च माया’ इति ।। ४४ ।। त्वयि मेऽनन्यविषया मतिरिति यत्प्रार्थितं तद्बाढमित्यङ्गीकृत्य रथस्थानाद्गजसाह्वयमागत्य पश्चात्तां चान्याश्च सुभद्राप्रमुखाः स्त्रिय उपामन्त्र्यानुज्ञाप्य स्वपुरं यास्यन् राज्ञा युधिष्ठिरेण प्रेम्णाऽत्रैव किंचित्कालं निवसेति संप्रार्थ्य निवारितः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta went on: In this way when Pṛthā (Kuntī) extolled in sweet words the consummate glory of Lord Vaikuṇṭha (Śrī Kṛṣṇa,) He gently smiled as if bewitching her by His Māyā (deluding potency) (44). “So be it,” said Śrī Kṛṣṇa and, taking leave of her, entered the city of Hastināpura once again; then, after bidding adieu to the other ladies as well, He was about to leave for Dwārakā when king Yudhiṣṭhira detained Him out of love (45).

मन्दम् is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मन्द’।

‘मन्द’ gets the designation कर्म by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते – Adverbs are treated as having the designation कर्म (object) and are used in the neuter singular.

(1) मन्द + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते, 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया

(2) मन्द + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । Note: 7-1-24 अतोऽम् is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(3) मन्दम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते been used in verses 10-15 in Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Why is the form ‘परिणूत’ (used as part of the compound परिणूताखिलोदयः) a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?

5. Is there an alternate form for आगत्य (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My mother is a good cook.” Paraphrase to “My mother cooks well (in a good manner.)” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोभन’ (meaning ‘good’) as an adverb.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

2. In the commentary, can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision?

सप्ताहम् mAs

Today we will look at the form सप्ताहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.46.25.

कंसं नागायुतप्राणं मल्लौ गजपतिं तथा । अवधिष्टां लीलयैव पशूनिव मृगाधिपः ।। १०-४६-२४ ।।
तालत्रयं महासारं धनुर्यष्टिमिवेभराट् । बभञ्जैकेन हस्तेन सप्ताहमदधाद्गिरिम् ।। १०-४६-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
न केवलं तद्वचनानुसारेणैव व्यवहारसंवादादपीत्याह – कंसमिति ।। २४ ।। इभराड्यष्टिमिव तालत्रयप्रमाणं धनुर्बभञ्ज ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – They killed in mere sport Kaṁsa, who possessed the strength of (not less than) ten thousand elephants, and (his) two (principal) wrestlers (Cāṇūra and Muṣṭika) as well as Kuvalayapīḍa (the chief of his elephants) (just) as a lion (the king of beasts) would kill (a number of) animals (24). Kṛṣṇa snapped the most powerful bow (of Kaṁsa) measuring 3 Tālas (equivalent to 27 spans), (even) as a leader of elephants would break a sugarcane, and held the (Govardhana) hill with one hand for a (full) week (25).

सप्ताहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्ताह’।

‘सप्ताह’ gets the द्वितीया-विभक्तिः by 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

(1) सप्ताह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌, 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) सप्ताहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the last ten verses of Chapter Six of the Geeta?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – अत्यन्तसंयोगे किम्? मासस्य द्विरधीते। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the affix क्विँप् used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राज्’ (used in the compound इभराट्)?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अधिप’ (used as part of the compound मृगाधिपः)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(Please) wait for a second.” Paraphrase to passive (भावे प्रयोग:) – “Let it be waited for a second.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) for ‘to wait.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma lived in the forest for fourteen years.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘वध’ in अवधिष्टाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य been used in the verses?

महदनुग्रहम् mAs

Today we will look at the form महदनुग्रहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.15

यन्माययोरुगुणकर्मनिबन्धनेऽस्मिन् सांसारिके पथि चरंस्तदभिश्रमेण ।
नष्टस्मृतिः पुनरयं प्रवृणीत लोकं युक्त्या कया महदनुग्रहमन्तरेण ।। ३-३१-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु ज्ञानेनायं बन्धो निवर्तिष्यते किं परमेश्वरवन्दनेन तत्राह । यस्य मायया नष्टस्मृतिः सन् संसारसंबन्धिनि पथि तदभिश्रमेण तत्कृतेन क्लेशेन चरन्नयं जीवो महतस्तस्यैवेश्वरस्यानुग्रहं विना पुनः कया युक्त्या लोकं निजस्वरूपं प्रवृणीत संभजेत । अभिश्रमहेतुत्वेन पन्थानं विशिनष्टि उरूणि गुणनिमित्तानि कर्माणि नितरां बन्धनानि यस्मिन् । ईश्वरस्य प्रसादं विना ज्ञानाभावात्स एव सेव्य इत्यर्थः ।। १५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having forgotten his own self under the influence of the Lord’s Māyā, the embodied soul traverses the path of Saṁsāra (transmigration) – strewn with numerous shackles of Karma, having their source in the three Guṇas – undergoing hardships of many kinds. By what other expedient, then, than through the grace of that Supreme Being can he expect to realize his true nature? (15)

महदनुग्रहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the compound पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महदनुग्रह’।

(1) महदनुग्रह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌, 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अन्तरा’ or ‘अन्तरेण’। Note: As per the महाभाष्यम्, the terms ‘अन्तरा’ and ‘अन्तरेण’ used in the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 have the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा। They also have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्। (Here अन्तरेण is not the instrumental singular of ‘अन्तर’)।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) महदनुग्रहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In how many places has the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते been used in the गीता?
i) 0
ii) 1
iii) 2
iv) 3

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – युक्तग्रहणान्नेह – ‘अन्तरा त्वां मां कृष्णस्य मूर्तिः’। इह कृष्णान्न द्वितीया, अन्तराशब्दप्रयोगेऽपि अन्तरेत्यनेनानन्वयात्। Please explain.

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of लँट्) been used?

4. Can you spot the affix क्तिन् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुग्रह’ (used as part of of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महदनुग्रह’)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Daśaratha did not want to live without Śrī Rāma.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix श्नम् in the commentary?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-88 भस्य टेर्लोपः been used in the verses?

सम्पदम् fAs

Today we will look at the form सम्पदम् fAs from श्रीमद्भागवद्गीता 16.3.

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम्‌ | दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम्‌ || 16-2||
तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता | भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत || 16-3||

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच – अहिंसेति । अहिंसा परपीडावर्जनम्, सत्यं यथार्थभाषणम्, अक्रोधस्ताडितस्यापि चित्ते क्षोभानुत्पत्तिः, त्याग औदार्यम्, शान्तिश्चित्तोपरतिः, पैशुनं परोक्षे परदोषप्रकाशनम्, तद्वर्जनमपैशुनम्, भूतेषु दीनेषु दया, अलोलुप्त्वं लोभाभावः, अवर्णलोप आर्षः। मार्दवं मृदुत्वमक्रूरता, ह्रीः अकार्यप्रवृत्तौ लोकलज्जा, अचापलं व्यर्थक्रियाराहित्यम् ।। २ ।। किंच – तेज इति । तेजः प्रागल्भ्यं, क्षमा परिभवादिषूत्पद्यमानेषु क्रोधप्रतिबन्धः, धृतिर्दुःखादिभिरवसीदतश्चित्तस्य स्थिरीकरणम्, शौचं बाह्याभ्यन्तरशुद्धिः, अद्रोहो जिघांसाराहित्यं, अतिमानिता आत्मन्यतिपूज्यत्वाभिमानस्तदभावो नातिमानिता, एतान्यभयादीनि षड्विंशतिप्रकाराणि दैवीं संपदमभिजातस्य भवन्ति । देवयोग्यां सात्विकीं संपदमभिलक्ष्य तदाभिमुख्येन जातस्य भाविकल्याणस्य पुंसो भवन्तीत्यर्थः ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Non-violence in thought, word and deed, truthfulness and geniality of speech, absence of anger even on provocation, disclaiming doer-ship in respect of actions, quietude or composure of mind, abstaining from slander, compassion towards all creatures, absence of attachment to the objects of senses even during their contact with the senses, mildness, a sense of shame in transgressing the scriptures or social conventions, and abstaining from frivolous pursuits; (2) Sublimity, forbearance, fortitude, external purity, bearing enmity to none and absence of self-esteem — these are the marks of him, who is born with the divine endowments, Arjuna. (3)

सम्पदम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सम्पद्’।

In the current example ‘सम्पद्’ co-occurs with the term ‘अभि’ which has the कर्मप्रवचनीय-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-91 अभिरभागे – The term ‘अभि’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the context where either लक्षणम् (mark/aim) or इत्थम्भूताख्यानम् (description of someone/something being thus) or वीप्सा (pervasion/entirety) is denoted.

Note: 1-4-90 mentions लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु। After removing ‘भाग’ from the list, what remains is लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानवीप्सासु। Hence अभागे means लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानवीप्सासु।

Note: कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a technical term used in connection with a preposition/prefix (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) which showed a verbal activity formerly but at the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes which are not used along with a verbal root.
Note: गत्युपसर्गसञ्ज्ञापवाद: – The designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a अपवाद: (exception) to the designation गति: (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च) and उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)

(1) सम्पद् + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘सम्पद्’ is co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘अभि’, it take a second case affix by 2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a कर्मप्रवचनीय: (ref. 1-4-83 to 1-4-98.)
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

= सम्पदम् ।

Questions:

1. Which वार्तिकम् is used to derive the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सम्पद्’?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ग्’ in त्याग:?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हिंसा'(used as a part of the compound अहिंसा in the verses)?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जिघांसा’ (used as a part of the compound जिघांसाराहित्यम् in the commentary) formed?

5. Can you spot the substitution ‘शानच्’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am nice/good to (towards) everyone.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘साधु’ (feminine ‘साध्वी’) for ‘nice/good.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix शप् in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् apply in the form ह्री:?

नृसिंहम् mAs

Today we will look at the form नृसिंहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.8.24

एवं ब्रुवंस्त्वभ्यपतद्गदायुधो नदन्नृसिंहं प्रति दैत्यकुञ्जरः । अलक्षितोऽग्नौ पतितः पतङ्गमो यथा नृसिंहौजसि सोऽसुरस्तदा ।। ७-८-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदा सोऽसुरो नृसिंहस्यौजसि दीप्तौ पतितःन्नलक्षितोऽदृष्टोऽभूत् ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Thus murmuring and arming himself with a mace, Hiraṇyakaśipu (who was a veritable elephant among the Daityas) rushed roaring towards Nṛsiṁha (the Lord appearing in the form of a man-lion.) Fallen into the nimbus of Lord Nṛsiṁha at that time, the said demon vanished like a moth fallen into a flame (24).

नृसिंहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नृसिंह’।

In the current example ‘नृसिंह’ is associated with the term ‘प्रति’ । ‘प्रति’ gets the कर्मप्रवचनीय-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः – The terms ‘प्रति’, ‘परि’ and ‘अनु’ get the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the context where either लक्षणम् (mark/aim) or इत्थम्भूताख्यानम् (description of someone/something being thus) or भाग: (portion/share) or वीप्सा (pervasion/entirety) is denoted.

Note: कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a technical term used in connection with a preposition/prefix (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) which showed a verbal activity formerly but at the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes which are not used along with a verbal root.

See question 1.

(1) नृसिंह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘नृसिंह’ is co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘प्रति’, it take a second case affix by 2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a कर्मप्रवचनीय: (ref. 1-4-83 to 1-4-98.)
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) नृसिंहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. The designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a अपवाद: (exception) to which two designations?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एषु किम्? परिषिञ्चति। Please explain.

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) has been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लुक् elision of the affix सिँच् in अभूत्?

5. Can you spot the affix क्तिन् in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday I wrote a letter to my friend.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the commentary? Where has 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति been used?

चमरान् mAp

Today we will look at the form चमरान् mAp from रघुवंशम् verse 9-66.

चमरान्परितः प्रवर्तिताश्वः क्वचिदाकर्णविकृष्टभल्लवर्षी ।
नृपतीनिव तान्वियोज्य सद्यः सितबालव्यजनैर्जगाम शान्तिम् ॥ 9-66॥

टीका
क्वचिच्चमरान्परितः । ‘अभितःपरितःसमया-‘ (वा. 1-4-48) इत्यादिना द्वितीया । प्रवर्तिताश्वः । प्रधाविताश्वः [आकर्णविकृष्टभल्लवर्षी]  आकर्णविकृष्टभल्लानिषुविशेषान्वर्षतीति तथोक्तः स नृपः । नृपतीनिव तान् चमरान् सितबालव्यजनैः शुभ्रचामरैः वियोज्य विरहय्य सद्यः शान्तिं जगाम । शूराणां परकीयमैश्वर्यमेवासह्यम् । न तु जीवितमिति भावः । औपच्छन्दसिकं वृत्तम् ।।

Translation – At times he turned his horse towards the Yaks, and showering arrows, drawn to his ears, he tore away from them, as from (rival) kings, the chowries of their white tails, and then felt at ease (66).

चमरान् is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चमर’।

(1) चमर + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। ‘चमर’ takes a second case affix by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अभितः’ or ‘परितः’ or ‘समया’ or ‘निकषा’ or ‘हा’ or ‘प्रति’।
Note: ‘अभितःपरितः’ इत्यत्राद्यस्योभयत इत्यर्थोऽन्त्यस्य सर्वत इत्यर्थ इति ‘५-३-९ पर्यभिभ्यां च’ इत्यत्र भाष्ये। In the भाष्यम् under the सूत्रम् 5-3-9 पर्यभिभ्यां च it is stated that here the meaning of अभितः is उभयतः (on both sides) and that of परितः is सर्वतः (on all sides.)

(2) चमर + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) चमरास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) चमरान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् ‘अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि’ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – समयानिकषाशब्दौ सामीप्यवचनावव्ययौ। Please explain.

2. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

3. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form जीवितम् in the commentary?
i) कर्तरि
ii) कर्मणि
iii) भावे
iv) करणे

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अय्’ in विरहय्य (used in the commentary?)

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My house is near the temple.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān saw ogresses standing all around Sītā.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the commentary?

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