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अतीत्य ind

Today we will look at the form अतीत्य ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.15.27.

तस्मिन्नतीत्य मुनयः षडसज्जमानाः कक्षाः समानवयसावथ सप्तमायाम् । देवावचक्षत गृहीतगदौ परार्ध्यकेयूरकुण्डलकिरीटविटङ्कवेषौ ।। ३-१५-२७ ।।
मत्तद्विरेफवनमालिकया निवीतौ विन्यस्तयासितचतुष्टयबाहुमध्ये । वक्त्रं भ्रुवा कुटिलया स्फुटनिर्गमाभ्यां रक्तेक्षणेन च मनाग्रभसं दधानौ ।। ३-१५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तस्मिन्वैकुण्ठे षट् कक्षाः प्राकारद्वाराणि । असज्जमानाः भगवद्दर्शनोत्कण्ठया तत्तदद्भुतदर्शन आसक्तिमकुर्वाणाः । द्वारपालौ देवावपश्यन् । समानं वयो ययोः । गृहीते गदे याभ्याम् । परार्ध्यैः केयूरादिभिर्विटङ्कः सुन्दरो वेषो ययोः ।। २७ ।। तावेव वर्णयति । मत्ता द्विरेफा यस्यां तया वनमालया निवीतौ कण्ठलम्बिन्या अलंकृतौ । असिता नीलाश्चतुष्टये चतुःसंख्याका बाहवस्तेषां मध्ये विन्यस्तयावक्त्रं च मनाग्रभसं किंचित्क्षुब्धं दधानौ । स्फुटावुत्फुल्लौ निर्गमौ श्वासमार्गौ नासापुटे ताभ्याम् ।। २८ ।।

Translation – Having passed through six entrances to the Lord’s residence without feeling attached to anything, the sages saw at the seventh gate two shining beings of the same age, armed with a mace and adorned with most valuable armlets, ear-rings and diadems (27). With a garland of sylvan flowers, which attracted to it a swarm of intoxicated bees, placed round their neck and between their four swarthy arms, they wore a countenance which looked somewhat agitated from their arched eyebrows, distended nostrils and reddish eyes (28).

अतीत्य is derived from the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अति’।

(1) इ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions अतीत्य (having passed) and अचक्षत (saw) is मुनयः (the sages.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘having passed’ which is denoted by √इ and hence √इ takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) अति इ + क्त्वा । ‘इ + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘अति’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(3) अति + इ + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(4) अति + इ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(5) अती + य । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः। Since the affix ‘य’ is no longer preceded by a short vowel, 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् would not apply here. But now 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः intervenes and says that when it comes to a possible addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’, the single substitute ‘ई’ (in place of ‘इ + इ’) is to be treated as if it has not occurred. Thus 6-1-71 still sees अति + इ + य and the addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’ does take place.

Note: The entire meaning of the सूत्रम् 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः is – When the substitution ‘ष्’ or the augment ‘तुँक्’ is to be performed, a single replacement (in place of the preceding and following letter) is treated as if it has not occurred.

(6) अती तुँक् + य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘इ’।

(7) अतीत्य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

‘अतीत्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(8) अतीत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) अतीत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has अतीत्य been used in Chapter Fourteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – कोऽसिञ्चत्। इह षत्वं न। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution शानच् (in place of लँट्) in दधानौ?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the commentary?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having overcome (gone beyond) many obstacles Śrī Hanumān reached Laṅkā.” Use the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to reach.’ Use the affix ‘क’ prescribed by the वार्तिकम् (under 3-3-58 ग्रहवृदृनिश्चिगमश्च) घञर्थे कविधानम् with the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः #२. २) to create a प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘obstacle.’ (विहन्यन्तेऽस्मिन्)।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उवँङ्’ in भ्रुवा?

विनमय्य ind

Today we will look at the form विनमय्य ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.9.3.

स वै धिया योगविपाकतीव्रया हृत्पद्मकोशे स्फुरितं तडित्प्रभम् । तिरोहितं सहसैवोपलक्ष्य बहिःस्थितं तदवस्थं ददर्श ।। ४-९-२ ।।
तद्दर्शनेनागतसाध्वसः क्षिताववन्दताङ्गं विनमय्य दण्डवत् । दृग्भ्यां प्रपश्यन्प्रपिबन्निवार्भकश्चुम्बन्निवास्येन भुजैरिवाश्लिषन् ।। ४-९-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स वै ध्रुवो योगस्य विपाकेन दार्ढ्येन तीव्रया निश्चलया । गरुडाधिरूढं पुरतः स्थितमपि यदान्तर्दृष्टित्वादसौ नापश्यत्तदा भगवतैवान्तःस्थं रूपमाकृष्टमतस्तिरोहितमुपलक्ष्य व्युत्थितः सन् तदवस्थं यादृगन्तः स्फुरितस्तादृशम् ।। २ ।। आगतसाध्वसो जातसंभ्रमः । विनमय्य आनतं कृत्वा । संभ्रममेवाह । दृग्भ्यां प्रपिबन्निव पश्यन्नवन्दतआस्येन चुम्बन्निवावन्दत । भुजाभ्यामाश्लिषन्निवावन्दतेत्यर्थः ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Dhruva saw that the form, brilliant as a flash of lightning, that was revealed in the lotus of his heart by an intellect sharpened by the ripeness of Yoga (concentration) had suddenly vanished, and (on opening his eyes) he beheld the same figure standing without (2). Struck with awe at His sight, the child (Dhruva) greeted Him by prostrating his body like a log on the ground. He gazed at Him as if He would drink Him with his eyes, kiss Him with his lips and clasp Him with his arms (3).

विनमय्य is derived from a causative form of the verbal root √नम् (णमँ प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

(1) नम् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix ‘णिच्’ is used after a verbal root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) नम् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नाम् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् (base) gets वृद्धिः (ref. 1-1-1) as the substitute when followed by an affix which is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्)।

(4) नमि । By 6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः – A short vowel (ह्रस्व:) is substituted in place of the penultimate letter (vowel) of a verbal root which is मित् (has the letter ‘म्’ as an इत्) and is followed by the causative affix ‘णि’। Note: Any verbal root belonging to one of the following two special sections of the धातु-पाठ: is considered as a मित् (having the letter ‘म्’ as an इत्)।
1. Beginning with √घट् (घटँ चेष्टायाम् १. ८६७) and ending with √फण् (फणँ गतौ १. ९५५)
2. Beginning with √ज्ञप् (ज्ञपँ ज्ञानज्ञापनमारणतोषणनिशाननिशामनेषु १०. ११८) and ending with √चि (चिञ् चयने १०. १२४).

As per the गण-सूत्रम् ‘जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च’ – The verbal roots √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५), √क्नस् (क्नसुँ ह्वरणदीप्त्योः ४. ७), √रञ्ज् (रञ्जँ रागे १. ११५४) as well as any verbal root ending in ‘अम्’ are considered to be ‘मित्’ (having the letter ‘म्’ as a इत्)।

‘नमि’ gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

(5) नमि + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions विनमय्य (prostrating) and अवन्दत (greeted) is ध्रुवः। The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘prostrating’ which is denoted by ‘नमि’ and hence ‘नमि’ takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(6) वि नमि + क्त्वा । ‘नमि + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘वि’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(7) वि नमि + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(8) वि नमि + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) वि नमय् + य । By 6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ – The affix ‘णि’ is substituted by ‘अय्’ when the following two conditions are satisfied –
(i) ‘णि’ is preceded by a letter (‘म्’ in this case) which itself is preceded by a vowel (‘अ’ in this case) having the designation ‘लघु’ (ref. 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु) and
(ii) ‘णि’ is followed by the affix ‘ल्यप्’।

‘विनमय्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(10) विनमय्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) विनमय्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In how many places in the गीता has the सूत्रम् 6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ been used?
(i) 0 (ii) 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 3

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ (used in step 9) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – लघुपूर्वात्किम्? संप्रधार्य। Please explain.

3. Where else (besides in विनमय्य) has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) in प्रपश्यन्, प्रपिबन्, चुम्बन् and आश्लिषन्?

5. From which verbal root is ‘व्युत्थित’ (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Raising (having caused to rise) her (own) face, Sītā saw Śrī Hanumān situated on the branch of a tree.” Use (a causative form) of the verbal root √नम् (णमँ प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘उद्’ for ‘to rise.’ Use the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’ with the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) to form a प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘situated.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ in धिया?

प्रणिधाय ind

Today we will look at the form प्रणिधाय ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.6.20.

दिदृक्षुस्तदहं भूयः प्रणिधाय मनो हृदि । वीक्षमाणोऽपि नापश्यमवितृप्त इवातुरः ।। १-६-२० ।।
एवं यतन्तं विजने मामाहागोचरो गिराम् । गम्भीरश्लक्ष्णया वाचा शुचः प्रशमयन्निव ।। १-६-२१ ।।
हन्तास्मिञ्जन्मनि भवान्न मां द्रष्टुमिहार्हति । अविपक्वकषायाणां दुर्दर्शोऽहं कुयोगिनाम् ।। १-६-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हृदि मनः प्रणिधाय स्थिरीकृत्यावितृप्तोऽहमातुर इवाभवमिति शेषः ।। २० ।। गिरामगोचरः संवेदनस्याविषयभूत ईश्वरः ।। २१ ।। हन्तेति सानुकम्पसंबोधने ।। २२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Longing to behold it once more, I fixed the mind on my heart and looked for it, but could not see it. Now I felt miserable like one whose desire had not been sated (20). To me thus struggling in that lonely forest, the Lord, who is beyond words, spoke in sublime yet soft words, as if to soothe my grief: (21) “Alas! in this birth you are unfit to behold Me; for I am difficult of perception for those who have not attained perfection in Yoga (Devotion), and the impurities of whose heart have not yet been wholly burnt (22).

प्रणिधाय is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ and ‘नि’।

(1) धा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions प्रणिधाय (fixed) and वीक्षमाणः (looked) is अहम् (I.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘fixed’ which is denoted by √धा and hence √धा takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) प्र नि धा + क्त्वा । ‘धा + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘प्र नि’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(3) प्र नि + धा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(4) प्र नि + धा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: As per 6-4-69 न ल्यपि – The letter ‘आ’ of the verbal roots listed in 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि does not get the letter ‘ई’ as a replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ल्यप्’। 6-4-69 prevents 6-4-66 from applying here.

(5) प्र णि + धा य । By 8-4-17 नेर्गदनदपतपदघुमास्यतिहन्तियातिवातिद्रातिप्सातिवपतिवहतिशाम्यतिचिनोतिदेग्धिषु च – The letter ‘न्’ of the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ gets the letter ‘ण्’ as a replacement, when the following two conditions are satisfied –
(i) ‘नि’ is preceded by a उपसर्गः that has the निमित्तम् (cause – रेफः, षकारः) to bring about णत्वम् and
(ii) ‘नि’ is followed by the verbal root √गद् (गदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १.५४) or √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६) or √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) or √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) or any verbal root having the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) or √मा (मेङ् प्रणिदाने १. १११६, माङ् माने शब्दे च ३. ७, माङ् माने ४. ३७) or √सो (षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२) or √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) or √या (या प्रापणे २. ४४) or √वा (वा गतिगन्धनयोः २. ४५) or √द्रा (द्रा कुत्सायां गतौ २. ४९) or √प्सा (प्सा भक्षणे २. ५) or √वप् (डुवपँ बीजसन्ताने | छेदनेऽपि १. ११५८) or √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) or √शम् (शमुँ उपशमे ४. ९८) or √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५) or √दिह् (दिहँ उपचये २. ५).
‘प्रणिधाय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(6) प्रणिधाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) प्रणिधाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has प्रणिधाय been used (in Chapter Eleven) of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-4-17 नेर्गदनदपतपदघुमास्यतिहन्तियातिवातिद्रातिप्सातिवपतिवहतिशाम्यतिचिनोतिदेग्धिषु च (used in step 5) the काशिका says – अड्व्यवायेऽपि नेर्गदादिषु णत्वमिष्यते। प्रण्यगदत्। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix खल् in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘व्’ in ‘पक्व’ (used as part of the compound अविपक्वकषायाणाम् in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Having prostrated his (own) body, Bharata said to Śrī Rāma – ‘(Please) give me your (two) sandals.’ Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पादुका’ for ‘sandal.’ Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘me.’ Use the अव्ययम् ‘इति’ as an end-quote.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is अस्मिन् derived?

व्यवसाय ind

Today we will look at the form व्यवसाय ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.12.33.

स च स्वर्लोकमारोक्ष्यन्सुनीतिं जननीं ध्रुवः । अन्वस्मरदगं हित्वा दीनां यास्ये त्रिविष्टपम् ।। ४-१२-३२ ।।
इति व्यवसितं तस्य व्यवसाय सुरोत्तमौ । दर्शयामासतुर्देवीं पुरो यानेन गच्छतीम् ।। ४-१२-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दीनां हित्वा कथमगं दुर्गमं त्रिविष्टपं यास्यामीत्यन्वस्मरत् ।। ३२ ।। व्यवसितमभिप्रायम् । व्यवसाय ज्ञात्वा ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – As he was about to soar for the divine realm, Dhruva recalled his mother Sunīti, and said to himself, “Shall I have to proceed to the inaccessible heaven, leaving my poor mother behind?” (32) Having read his mind as depicted above, the two foremost divinities showed the shining lady going ahead (of Dhruva) in another aerial car (33).

व्यवसाय is derived from the verbal root √सो (षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ and ‘अव’।

The verbal root ‘षो’ has an initial letter ‘ष्’ in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, the letter ‘स्’ is substituted in place of the initial letter ‘ष्’ of a verbal root in the धातु-पाठः। So we now have √सो। Recall that as per 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’, ‘ऐ’, ‘औ’) letter of a verbal root in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by the letter ‘आ’, but not in the context where the letter ‘श्’ which is a इत् follows. Hence we start the derivation with √सा।

(1) सा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions व्यवसाय (having read) and दर्शयामासतुः (showed) is सुरोत्तमौ (the two foremost divinities.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘having read’ which is denoted by √सो and hence √सो takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) वि अव + सा + क्त्वा । ‘सा + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘वि अव’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(3) वि अव + सा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(4) वि अव + सा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: As per 6-4-69 न ल्यपि – The letter ‘आ’ of the verbal roots listed in 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि does not get the letter ‘ई’ as a replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ल्यप्’। 6-4-69 prevents 6-4-66 from applying here.

(5) व्यवसाय । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

‘व्यवसाय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(6) व्यवसाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) व्यवसाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-69 न ल्यपि (used in step 4) been used in Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-69 न ल्यपि the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – कथं तर्हि ‘निपीय यस्य’ इति श्रीहर्षप्रयोग इति चेदत्राहुः – ‘पीङ् पाने’ इति दिवादिगणस्थात् ल्यपि न दोष इति। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in हित्वा?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the affix खल् in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having resolved to abduct Sīta, Rāvaṇa requested assistance from Mārīca.” Use the neuter noun ‘साहाय्य’ for ‘assistance.’ Use the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) with the prefix ‘अप’ for ‘to abduct’ and the verbal root √याच् (टुयाचृँ याच्ञायाम् १. १००१) for ‘to request.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Why is गच्छतीम् a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

संहत्य ind

Today we will look at the form संहत्य ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.7.30.

सूत उवाच
श्रुत्वा भगवता प्रोक्तं फाल्गुनः परवीरहा । स्पृष्ट्वापस्तं परिक्रम्य ब्राह्मं ब्राह्माय संदधे ।। १-७-२९ ।।
संहत्यान्योन्यमुभयोस्तेजसी शरसंवृते । आवृत्य रोदसी खं च ववृधातेऽर्कवह्निवत् ।। १-७-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
परे शत्रवस्त एव वीरास्तान्हन्तीति तथाविधः फाल्गुनोऽर्जुनोऽपः स्पृष्ट्वाचम्य तं श्रीकृष्णं परिक्रम्य प्रदक्षिणीकृत्य । ब्राह्माय ब्रह्मास्त्रं निवर्तयितुम् ।। २९ ।। ततश्चोभयोर्ब्रह्मास्त्रयोस्तेजसी शरैः संवृते संवेष्टिते परस्परं मिलित्वा ववृधाते अवर्धेताम् । किं कृत्वा । रोदसी द्यावापृथिव्यौ खमन्तरिक्षं चावृत्य । यथा प्रलये संकर्षणमुखाग्निरुपरिस्थितोऽर्कश्च संहत्य वर्धेते तद्वत् ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta continued : On hearing the Lord’s words, Arjuna, the exterminator of rival warriors, sipped a little water, went round the Lord in reverence and fitted a Brahmāstra to repulse the Brahmāstra (discharged by Aśwatthāmā) (29). The two flames, surrounded by arrows, joined each other and, filling the heavens as well as the space between heaven and earth, swelled like the sun and the fire at the time of universal destruction (30).

संहत्य is derived from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’।

(1) हन् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions संहत्य (joined) and ववृधाते (swelled) is तेजसी (two flames.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘joined’ which is denoted by √हन् and hence √हन् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) सम् + हन् + क्त्वा । ‘हन् + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘सम्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(3) सम् + हन् + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(4) सम् + हन् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) सम् + ह + य । As per 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि – When followed by the affix ल्यप्, there is an optional elision of the final nasal consonant of the verbal roots* which have अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः as well as the verbal root √वन् (वनँ शब्दे १. ५३३, वनँ सम्भक्तौ १. ५३४, वनुँ च नोच्यते १. ९१५) and the verbal roots belonging to the तनादि-गणः।
Note: * सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी – ‘यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः।’ The following six roots end in a nasal consonant and have a अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः।
√यम् (यमँ उपरमे १. ११३९), √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९), √नम् (णमँ प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६), √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७), √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) and √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३)।

Note: सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – व्यवस्थितविभाषेयम् । तेन मान्तानिटां वा, नान्तानिटां वनादीनां च नित्यम् । The elision (prescribed by 6-4-38) is optional in the case of the verbal roots which end in the letter ‘म्’ and have अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः। In the remaining cases the elision is invariable (not optional.)

Since √हन् does not end in the letter ‘म्’ the elision of the final nasal is invariable (not optional.)

(6) सम् + ह तुँक् + य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘अ’।

(7) सम् + हत्य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) संहत्य । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।

‘संहत्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(9) संहत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) संहत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where in Chapter One of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि been used with the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २)?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् (used in step 6) the काशिका says – ह्रस्वस्येति किम्? आलूय। Please explain.

3. Where else (besides in संहत्य) has the सूत्रम् 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix क्विँप् in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix तुमुँन् in निवर्तयितुम् used in the commentary?
(i) 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ (ii) 3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् (iii) 3-3-167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन् (iv) 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् ।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having killed Rāvaṇa and having established Vibhīṣaṇa on the throne of Laṅkā, Śrī Rāma returned to Ayodhyā.” Use the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ for ‘to kill.’ Use a causative form of the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to establish.’

Easy questions:

1. What prevents the letter ‘ऋ’ in ववृधाते from taking the गुण: substitution by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

2. In the commentary can you spot two words in which the सूत्रम् 7-2-81 आतो ङितः has been used?

उपसङ्गम्य ind

Today we will look at the form उपसङ्गम्य ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.48.3.

गृहं तमायान्तमवेक्ष्य साऽऽसनात्सद्यः समुत्थाय हि जातसम्भ्रमा । यथोपसङ्गम्य सखीभिरच्युतं सभाजयामास सदासनादिभिः ।। १०-४८-३ ।।
तथोद्धवः साधु तयाभिपूजितो न्यषीददुर्व्यामभिमृश्य चासनम् । कृष्णोऽपि तूर्णं शयनं महाधनं विवेश लोकाचरितान्यनुव्रतः ।। १०-४८-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यथा यथोचितम् । सद्भिरासनादिभिः ।। ३ ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seized with a flurry, as a matter of fact, to perceive Him coming to her house, she stood up at once from her seat and, meeting Him with due ceremony along with her female companions, honored Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the unfailing Lord) by offering Him a good seat and other articles of worship (3). Duly honored by her in a like manner, Uddhava squatted on the floor touching the seat (offered by her) with his head. Following the practices of the worldy-minded, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, for His part, quickly settled down on the costly bed (already placed there) (4).

उपसंगम्य is derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘उप’ and ‘सम्’।

(1) गम् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions उपसङ्गम्य (meeting) and सभाजयामास (honored) is सा (she.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘meeting’ which is denoted by √गम् and hence √गम् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) उप + सम् + गम् + क्त्वा । ‘गम् + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘उप’ and ‘सम्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः

(3) उप + सम् + गम् + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(4) उप + सम् + गम् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) उप + सम् + गम् + य । As per 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि – When followed by the affix ल्यप्, there is an optional elision of the final nasal consonant of the verbal roots* which have अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः as well as the verbal root √वन् (वनँ शब्दे १. ५३३, वनँ सम्भक्तौ १. ५३४, वनुँ च नोच्यते १. ९१५) and the verbal roots belonging to the तनादि-गणः।
Note: * सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी – ‘यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः।’ The following six roots end in a nasal consonant and have a अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः।
√यम् (यमँ उपरमे १. ११३९), √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९), √नम् (णमँ प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६), √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७), √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) and √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३)।

Here we consider the case where the letter ‘म्’ of √गम् is not elided.

See questions 2 and 4.

(6) उपसंगम्य । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।

(7) उपसंगम्य/उपसङ्गम्य । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य। ‘उपसंगम्य/उपसङ्गम्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

(8) उपसंगम्य/उपसङ्गम्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) उपसंगम्य/उपसङ्गम्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has उपसंगम्य/उपसङ्गम्य been used in Chapter One of the गीता? Identify the common doer and the later action done by the common doer.

2. What would be the optional final form in this example in the case where the letter ‘म्’ of √गम् is elided (by 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि)?

3. In the verses, can you spot three other instances (besides उपसङ्गम्य) where the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ has been used?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – व्यवस्थितविभाषेयम् । तेन मान्तानिटां वा, नान्तानिटां वनादीनां च नित्यम् । Please explain.

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Approaching (having approached) Śrī Rāma, Śrī Hanumān said – ‘I am a servant of Surgrīva the king of monkeys.’

Advanced question:

1. Consider the सूत्रम् 8-3-63 प्राक्सितादड्व्यवायेऽपि। The वृत्ति: says – ‘सेवसित -‘ इत्यत्र सितशब्दात्प्राग् ये सुनोत्यादयस्तेषामड्व्यवायेऽपि षत्वं स्यात् – The substitution ‘ष्’ (in place of ‘स्’) of the verbal roots √सु (षुञ् अभिषवे ५. १) etc mentioned in the rules 8-3-65 उपसर्गात्‌ सुनोतिसुवतिस्यतिस्तौतिस्तोभतिस्थासेनयसेधसिचसञ्जस्वञ्जाम् onward prior to term ‘सित’ (mentioned in 8-3-70 परिनिविभ्यः सेवसितसयसिवुसहसुट्स्तुस्वञ्जाम्) occurs even when the augment ‘अट्’ intervenes (between the इण् letter which is the cause for the substitution and the letter ‘स्’ which is substituted.)
In this section from 8-3-65 onward prior to the mention of ‘सित’ in 8-3-70 can you find a सूत्रम् which justifies the substitution ‘ष्’ (in place of ‘स्’) in the form न्यषीदत् used in the verses? Hint: The form न्यषीदत् is derived from the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०, ६. १६३). The सूत्रम् that we’re looking for specifically mentions √सद्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution णल् (in place of तिप्) in the form विवेश?

उषित्वा ind

Today we will look at the form उषित्वा ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.38.1.

श्रीशुक उवाच
अक्रूरोऽपि च तां रात्रिं मधुपुर्यां महामतिः । उषित्वा रथमास्थाय प्रययौ नन्दगोकुलम् ।। १०-३८-१ ।।
गच्छन्पथि महाभागो भगवत्यम्बुजेक्षणे । भक्तिं परामुपगत एवमेतदचिन्तयत् ।। १०-३८-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं नारदेन कंसवधादिकार्ये विज्ञापिते श्रीकृष्णो मथुरां गन्तुमुद्यतो वर्तते । तदाऽक्रूरोपि गोकुलमागमदित्याह – अक्रूरोऽपीति ।। १ ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka began again : Having spent that night at Mathurā (the city founded by the demon Madhu), the high-minded Akrūra too mounted a chariot and drove to Nanda’s Vraja (1). Proceeding along the road the highly blessed one developed supreme devotion to the lotus-eyed Lord and thought as follows adopting the following line of reasoning :- (2)

उषित्वा is derived from the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०).

(1) वस् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of the actions उषित्वा (having spent) and प्रययौ (drove) is अक्रूरः। The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘having spent’ which is denoted by √वस् and hence √वस् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) वस् + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वस् + इट् त्वा । By 7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट् – When following the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) or √क्षुध् (क्षुधँ बुभुक्षायाम् ४. ८७) the affix ‘क्त्वा’ as well as ‘निष्ठा’ (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) necessarily takes the augment इट्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment ‘इट्’ at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

Note: In the absence of 7-2-52, the augment ‘इट्’ would not have been possible here because 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ would prohibit 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(4) वस् + इत्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: As per 1-2-18 न क्त्वा सेट् – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ when augmented by इट् is not to be considered as a कित् (marked by the letter ‘क्’)।
Now 1-2-18 removes the कित् property of the affix ‘इत्वा’ but the special सूत्रम् 1-2-7 comes in to force.

(5) वस् + इत्वा । As per 1-2-7 मृडमृदगुधकुषक्लिशवदवसः क्त्वा – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ – even when augmented by ‘इट्’ – retains the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) when it follows the verbal root √मृड् (मृडँ सुखने ६. ५३, मृडँ (क्षोदे) सुखे च ९. ५२), √मृद् (मृदँ क्षोदे ९. ५१), √गुध् (गुधँ परिवेष्टने ४. १४, गुधँ रोषे ९. ५३), √कुष् (कुषँ निष्कर्षे ९. ५४), √क्लिश् (क्लिशँ उपतापे ४. ५७, क्लिशूँ विबाधने ९. ५८), √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४) or √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०).
Note: In the absence of this सूत्रम् –
(i) in the case of √मृड्, √मृद्, √वद् and √वस्1-2-18 would have removed the कित् property of the affix ‘क्त्वा’
(ii) in the case of √गुध्, √कुष् and √क्लिश्1-2-26 would have optionally removed the कित् property of the affix ‘क्त्वा’।

Note: 1-2-7 allows the affix ‘इत्वा’ to retain its कित् status in spite of 1-2-18. This allows 6-1-15 to apply in the next step.

(6) व् अ स् + इत्वा = उ अ स् + इत्वा । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति – The verbal roots √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) and also the nine verbal roots beginning with √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित्।
Note: The nine verbal roots √यज् etc are the last nine in the भ्वादि-गण:। They are as follows: By √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७), √वप् (डुवपँ बीजसन्ताने | छेदनेऽपि १. ११५८), √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √वे (वेञ् तन्तुसन्ताने १. ११६१), √व्ये (व्येञ् संवरणे १. ११६२), √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३), √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४) and √श्वि (ट्वोँश्वि गतिवृद्ध्योः १. ११६५)।

(7) उसित्वा । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(8) उषित्वा । By 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च – The letter ‘स्’ belonging to the verbal root √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०) or √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) or √घस् (घसॢँ अदने १. ८१२ as well as the substitute ‘घसॢँ’ which comes in place of अदँ भक्षणे २. १) is substituted by the letter ‘ष्’ when preceded by either a letter of the ‘इण्’-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग:।

‘उषित्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘उषित्वा’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः – Words ending in the affixes ‘क्त्वा’, ‘तोसुन्’ and ‘कसुन्’ are designated as indeclinables.

(9) उषित्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) उषित्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has उषित्वा been used in (Chapter Six of) the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट् (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – वसतीति शपा निर्देशः स्पष्टार्थः। वस्तेः सेट्कत्वाद्भवितव्यमेवेटा। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – पुनरिड्ग्रहणं नित्यार्थम्। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“After having lived in the forest for fourteen years, Śrī Rāma returned to Ayodhyā along with Sitā and Lakṣmaṇa.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समा’ for ‘year’ and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्दशन्’ for ‘fourteen.’ Use द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् with both ‘समा’ and ‘चतुर्दशन्’। Use the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) with the prefix ‘प्रति’ for ‘to return.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix णिच् in the form अचिन्तयत्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-88 भस्य टेर्लोपः been used in the verses?

हित्वा ind

Today we will look at the form हित्वा ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.25.4.

यथादृढैः कर्ममयैः क्रतुभिर्नामनौनिभैः । विद्यामान्वीक्षिकीं हित्वा तितीर्षन्ति भवार्णवम् ।। १०-२५-४ ।।
वाचालं बालिशं स्तब्धमज्ञं पण्डितमानिनम् । कृष्णं मर्त्यमुपाश्रित्य गोपा मे चक्रुरप्रियम् ।। १०-२५-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अदृढैरसमर्थैः कर्ममयैः क्रियानिर्वर्त्यैरत एव नामनौनिभैर्नाममात्रेण या नौरिति व्यवह्रियते तत्सदृशैः । अन्वीक्षिकीमात्मानुस्मृतिरूपाम् ।। ४ ।। तथा वाचालं बहुभाषिणं, बालिशं शिशुं, पण्डितमानिनं पण्डितंमन्यम्, अतः स्तब्धमविनीतमिति निन्दायां योजितापीन्द्रस्य भारती कृष्णं स्तौति । तथा हि – वाचालं शास्त्रयोनिम् । बालिशमेवमपि शिशुवन्निरभिमानिनम् । स्तब्धमन्यस्य वन्द्यस्याभावादनम्रम् । अज्ञं नास्ति ज्ञो यस्मात्तं । सर्वज्ञमित्यर्थः । पण्डितमानिनं ब्रह्मविदां बहुमाननीयम् । कृष्णं सदानन्दरूपं परं ब्रह्म । मर्त्यं तथापि भक्तवात्सल्येन मनुष्यतया प्रतीयमानमिति ।। ५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Even as those devoted to rituals seek to cross the ocean of mundane existence by recourse to sacrificial performances consisting of rituals passing for boats in name alone and (wholly) undependable, giving up the signs of self-realization, so having taken shelter under Kṛṣṇa – a garrulous, foolish, arrogant and ignorant mortal, though thinking himself to be a great scholar – the cowherds have given offense to me (4-5).

हित्वा is derived from the verbal root √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९) .

(1) हा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of both the actions हित्वा (giving up) and तितीर्षन्ति (seek to cross) is ‘those devoted to rituals’. The earlier of the two actions is the action of giving up which is denoted by √हा and hence √हा takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्त्वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

(2) हा + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prohibits the affix ‘त्वा’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) हित्वा । By 7-4-43 जहातेश्च क्त्वि – When followed by the affix ‘क्त्वा’ the verbal root √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९) takes the substitution ‘हि’। The entire term ‘हा’ is replaced by ‘हि’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य

1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।

‘हित्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘हित्वा’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः – Words ending in the affixes ‘क्त्वा’, ‘तोसुन्’ and ‘कसुन्’ are designated as indeclinables.

(4) हित्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) हित्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has हित्वा been used in Chapter Two of the गीता? Identify the common doer and the later action done by the common doer.

2. From which two other verbal roots (besides √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९)) can हित्वा be derived?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-43 जहातेश्च क्त्वि (used in step 3), the काशिका says – जहातेर्निर्देशाद् जिहातेर्न भवति। हात्वा। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘खश्’ in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञ’ used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Abandoning Ayodhyā, Lakṣmaṇa went to the forest to serve Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the substitution ‘रिङ्’ in the commentary?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-89 उतो वृद्धिर्लुकि हलि been used in the commentary?

गत्वा ind

Today we will look at the form गत्वा ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.14.43.

स्थालीं न्यस्य वने गत्वा गृहानाध्यायतो निशि । त्रेतायां सम्प्रवृत्तायां मनसि त्रय्यवर्तत ।। ९-१४-४३ ।।
स्थालीस्थानं गतोऽश्वत्थं शमीगर्भं विलक्ष्य सः । तेन द्वे अरणी कृत्वा उर्वशीलोककाम्यया ।। ९-१४-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ततश्च तां स्थालीं वने स्थापयित्वा गृहान्गत्वा निशि नित्यं तामेवाध्यायतस्तस्य मनसि त्रेतायां त्रयी अवर्तत कर्मबोधकं वेदत्रयं प्रादुरभूत् ।। ४३ ।। ततः स्थालीस्थानं गतः सन् शम्या गर्भे जातमश्वत्थं विलक्ष्य अस्मिन्नसावग्निरस्तीति विशेषेण लक्षयित्वा तेनाश्वत्थेन द्वे अरणी कृत्वाग्निं ममन्थेति शेषः । ‘समीगर्भादग्निं ममन्थ’ इति श्रुतिः ।। ४४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Leaving the vessel in the forest, he returned home and began contemplating on Urvaśī at night. (In the meantime) when the Tretā age commenced (at the end of Satyayuga), the knowledge of the science of rituals (as represented by the three Vedas – Ṛk, Yajus and Sāma), dawned on his mind (43). Going to the spot where he had left the vessel, and perceiving (there) a peepul tree sprouting from inside a Śamī tree, he hewed out of it a pair of Araṇis (churning sticks) for kindling fire by attrition (44).

गत्वा is derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७).

(1) गम् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
Note: Here the common agent of both the actions (returning and contemplating) is स: (he.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of returning which is denoted by √गम् and hence √गम् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67) of the action.

(2) गम् + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prohibits the affix ‘त्वा’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) ग + त्वा । By 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति – There is an elision of the final nasal consonant of the verbal root √वन् (वनँ शब्दे १. ५३३, वनँ सम्भक्तौ १. ५३४, वनुँ च नोच्यते १. ९१५) and of the verbal roots* which have अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः as well as of the verbal roots belonging to the तनादि-गणः – when followed by a झलादि-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: * सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी – ‘यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः।’ The following six roots end in a nasal consonant and have a अनुदात्त-स्वरः in the धातु-पाठः।
√यम् (यमँ उपरमे १. ११३९), √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९), √नम् (णमँ प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६), √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७), √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) and √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३)।

‘गत्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘गत्वा’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः – Words ending in the affixes ‘क्त्वा’, ‘तोसुन्’ and ‘कसुन्’ are designated as indeclinables.

(4) गत्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) गत्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which two chapters of the गीता has गत्वा been used? In each case identify the common doer(s) and the later action done by the common doer(s).

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – द्वित्‍वमतन्‍त्रम्। स्नात्वा भुक्‍त्‍वा पीत्‍वा व्रजति। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘काम्यच्’ used in उर्वशीलोककाम्यया?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is जातम् (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“After going home I got your message.” Use the masculine noun ‘सन्देश’ for ‘message.’

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति apply between द्वे + अरणी?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

रुदित्वा ind

Today we will look at the form रुदित्वा ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.24.32.

एवमुक्तो दशग्रीवो भगिन्या क्रोशमानया ।। ७-२४-३१ ।।
अब्रवीत् सान्त्वयित्वा तां सामपूर्वमिदं वचः । अलं वत्से रुदित्वा ते न भेतव्यं च सर्वशः ।। ७-२४-३२ ।।
दानमानप्रसादैस्त्वां तोषयिष्यामि यत्नतः । युद्धप्रमत्तो व्याक्षिप्तो जयकाङ्क्षी क्षिपञ्शरान् ।। ७-२४-३३ ।।
नाहमज्ञासिषं युध्यन् स्वान् परान् वापि संयुगे । जामातरं न जाने स्म प्रहरन् युद्धदुर्मदः ।। ७-२४-३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Comforting her through appeasement when reproached in these words by his wailing sister, Rāvaṇa (the ten-headed monster) replied (to her) as follows :- “Have done with weeping, my child; you should not be afraid of anyone (second part of 31-32). I shall particularly gratify you by means of gifts, politeness and favors. Intoxicated in war and distracted, longing as I did for victory, I went on raining arrows and was unable to distinguish between my own people and others in combat while fighting. While striking, fierce as I was in combat, I failed to recognize my own son-in-law (33-34).

अलं रुदित्वा । रुदित्वा is derived from the verbal root √रुद् (रुदिँर् अश्रुविमोचने २. ६२). Note: अलं रोदनेन/रुदितेन is also allowed as per 3-1-94 वासरूपोऽस्त्रियाम्।

(1) अलम् + रुद् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-18 अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा – In the opinion of the Eastern grammarians, the affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root when in combination with अलम्/खलु expressing the sense of prohibition. Note: The mention of the Eastern grammarians is for the sake of showing respect. (Optionality is already available by 3-1-94 वासरूपोऽस्त्रियाम्)।

(2) अलम् + रुद् + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) अलम् + रुद् + इट् त्वा । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, a आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment ‘इट्’। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment ‘इट्’ at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(4) अलम् + रुदित्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) अलम् + रुदित्वा । As per 1-2-18 न क्त्वा सेट् the affix ‘इत्वा’ would not be considered a कित्। But the affix ‘इत्वा’ is necessarily a कित् affix here by 1-2-8 रुदविदमुषग्रहिस्वपिप्रच्छः संश्च – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ as well as ‘सन्’ is considered to be a कित् (having ककारः as a इत्) when it follows the verbal root √रुद् (रुदिँर् अश्रुविमोचने २. ६२), √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९), √मुष् (मुषँ स्तेये ९. ६६), √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) or √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९).
1-2-8 also stops 1-2-26 रलो व्युपधाद्धलादेः संश्च (which would have made the affix ‘क्त्वा’ optionally a कित् affix) – When used with the augment ‘इट्’, the affixes ‘क्त्वा’ and ‘सन्’ are optionally treated as ‘कित्’ (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) when they follow a verbal root which begins with a consonant and ends in a रल् letter and has either a इवर्णः (इकारः/ईकारः) or a उवर्णः (उकारः/ऊकारः) as its penultimate letter.

Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च completely prohibits 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।

‘रुदित्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः

We would normally form a compound (by 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) between अलम् + रुदित्वा, but the compounding is stopped by the नियम-सूत्रम् 2-2-20 अमैवाव्ययेन

(6) अलम् + रुदित्वा । Compounding (by 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) between अलम् + रुदित्वा is stopped by the नियम-सूत्रम् 2-2-20 अमैवाव्ययेन – A उपपदम् (ref. 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌) may be compounded with a अव्ययम् only if the अव्ययम् ends in the affix ‘अम्’ (for example ‘णमुँल्’ – ref. 3-4-26 स्वादुमि णमुल्), provided also that the affix ‘अम्’ is the only affix prescribed by the same rule which prescribes the उपपदम्।

(7) अलं रुदित्वा । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

Questions:

1. In how many places in the गीता has the सूत्रम् 3-4-18 अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा been used?
(i) 0 (ii) 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 3

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-18 अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा (used in step 1) the काशिका says – अलङ्खल्वोरिति किम्? मा कार्षी:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-26 रलो व्युपधाद्धलादेः संश्च (referred to in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘न क्त्वा सेट्’ इत्यतः सेडिति वर्तते। चकारेण क्त्वायाः सङ्ग्रहः। ‘असंयोगात् -‘ इत्यतः किदिति, ‘नोपधात् -‘ इत्यतो वेति चानुवर्तते। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् 1-2-26 the काशिका says – रल इति किम्? देवित्वा। व्युपधादिति किम्? वर्तित्वा। हलादेरिति किम्? एषित्वा। सेडित्येव – भुक्त्वा। Please explain.

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment सक् in अज्ञासिषम्?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Stop eating meat.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

2. What are the three alternate forms for क्षिपञ्शरान् (= क्षिपन् + शरान्)?

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