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लीनेषु nLp

Today we will look at the form लीनेषु nLp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.27.14.

एवं त्रिवृदहङ्कारो भूतेन्द्रियमनोमयैः । स्वाभासैर्लक्षितोऽनेन सदाभासेन सत्यदृक् ।। ३-२७-१३ ।।
भूतसूक्ष्मेन्द्रियमनोबुद्ध्यादिष्विह निद्रया । लीनेष्वसति यस्तत्र विनिद्रो निरहङ्क्रियः ।। ३-२७-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एवं भूतेन्द्रियमनोमयैः देहेन्द्रियमनोभिरवच्छिन्नैः स्वाभासैरात्मप्रतिबिम्बैस्त्रिवृत्त्रिगुणोऽहंकारः सतो ब्रह्मण आभासो यस्मिंस्तेन रूपेण लक्षितः । अहंकारस्थाभासं विना विषयाभासानुत्पत्तेः । अनेन चाहंकारेण सदाभासवता सत्यदृक् परमार्थज्ञप्तिरूप आत्मा लक्षित इत्यर्थः ।। १३ ।। इदानीं सुषुप्तिसाक्षित्वेन शुद्धात्मप्रतिपत्तिमनुभवतो दर्शयति त्रिभिः । भूतादिष्वसत्यसत्तुल्येऽव्याकृते निद्रया लीनेषु सत्सु यस्तत्र तदा विनिद्रो निरहंक्रियस्तमात्मानं प्रतिपद्यत इति तृतीयेनान्वयः ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press transaltion – Even so the threefold (Sāttvika, Rājasika and Tāmasika) ego (which reflects the Spirit) is revealed through its reflections on the body, the Indriyas and the mind and through the ego, which contains a reflection of the Spirit, is seen God, who is possessed of true wisdom, is absolutely free from egotism and keeps awake even when the subtle elements (in the shape of sound etc.), the Indriyas, the mind and the intellect etc., get merged in the Unmanifest (Primordial Matter) on account of sleep (during the state of deep slumber) (13-14). 

The प्रातिपदिकम् “लीन” is derived from the verbal root √ली (ली श्लेषणे ९. ३६).

(1) ली + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) ली + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix ‘क्त’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(3) ली + न । By 8-2-44 ल्वादिभ्यः – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows any one of the 21 verbal roots (listed in order in the धातु-पाठ:) from √लू (लूञ् छेदने ९. १६) onwards.

See question 2.

“लीन” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्

(4) लीन + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) लीन + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) लीने + सु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – The ending “अ” of a अङ्गम् changes to “ए” when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(7) लीनेषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लीन’ been used (as part of a compound) in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-44 ल्वादिभ्यः (used in step 3), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – क्र्यादिषु प्वादयो द्वाविंशतिः पठ्यन्ते, तत्र पूञं विहाय ल्वादयो ज्ञेयाः। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकारादेश: in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘छिन्न’ used (as part of the compound अवच्छिन्नैः) in the commentary?

4. Which कृत्-प्रत्यय: is used to form the compound ‘अहंकारस्थ’ used (as part of the compound ‘अहंकारस्थाभास’) in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at the moon concealed among the clouds.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa cut off Jaṭāyu’s (two) wings.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जटायुस्’ for Jaṭāyu. Use √लू (लूञ् छेदने ९. १६) for ‘to cut off.’ Use the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’।

 

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the commentary?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-112 अनाप्यकः been used in the verses?

कृत्तः mNs

Today we will look at the form कृत्तः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.103.3.

तं तु वज्रमिवोत्सृष्टमाहवे दानवारिणा । वाग्वज्रं भरतेनोक्तममनोज्ञं परन्तपः ।। २-१०३-२ ।।
प्रगृह्य रामो बाहू वै पुष्पिताङ्ग इव द्रुमः । वने परशुना कृत्तस्तथा भुवि पपात ह ।। २-१०३-३ ।।
तथा हि पतितं रामं जगत्यां जगतीपतिम् । कूलघातपरिश्रान्तं प्रसुप्तमिव कुञ्जरम् ।। २-१०३-४ ।।
भ्रातरस्ते महेष्वासं सर्वतः शोककर्शितम् । रुदन्तः सह वैदेह्या सिषिचुः सलिलेन वै ।। २-१०३-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing the aforesaid unpleasant and heart-rending news broken by Bharata, which was (piercing) like a thunderbolt discharged by Indra (the enemy of demons) on a field of battle, and raising his arms, Śrī Rāma, the scorcher of his enemies, for his part actually sank to the ground precisely like a tree with boughs full of blossom felled down with an axe in a forest; so it is said (2-3). Weeping with Sītā (a princess of the Videha territory), his celebrated brothers (Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna) promptly sprinkled all over with water Śrī Rāma, the ruler of the earth and the wielder of a mighty bow, fallen on the ground, as aforesaid, blasted with grief, like an elephant exhausted by striking (with his tusks) against a river bank and lying fast asleep (4-5).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “कृत्त” is derived from the verbal root √कृत् (कृतीँ छेदने ६. १७१). The ending ईकार: of ‘कृतीँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Hence this verbal root is a ईदित्। This allows 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् to prevent the augment ‘इट्’ in step 2.

(1) कृत् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) कृत् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: By 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् – When following the verbal root √श्वि (टुओँश्वि गतिवृद्ध्योः १. ११६५) or any verbal root which has ईकार: as a इत्, a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) does not take the augment इट्। 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.

“कृत्त” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) कृत्त + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) कृत्त + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) कृत्तः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् (used in step 2) been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम्, the काशिका says – निष्ठायामित्यधिकारः ‘आर्धधातुकस्य इड्वलादेः’ (७-२-३५) इति यावत्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an augment ‘मुँम्’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उक्त’ as well as ‘सुप्त’?

5. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सृष्ट’ (used in the verses as part of the compound उत्सृष्टम्) is derived from the verbal root √सृज् (सृजँ विसर्गे ४. ७५, ६. १५०)। Can you recall two सूत्रे in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions this verbal root? Out of the two, which one has been used in ‘सृष्ट’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I did not see the man who felled this tree.” Use the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ to express the past tense.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘ना’ in the word परशुना?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

ध्यातम् nNs

Today we will look at the form ध्यातम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.28.4.

तैजसे निद्रयापन्ने पिण्डस्थो नष्टचेतनः । मायां प्राप्नोति मृत्युं वा तद्वन्नानार्थदृक्पुमान् ।। ११-२८-३ ।।
किं भद्रं किमभद्रं वा द्वैतस्यावस्तुनः कियत् । वाचोदितं तदनृतं मनसा ध्यातमेव च ।। ११-२८-४ ।।

भ्रंशमेव दृष्टान्ततो दर्शयति – तैजसे राजसाहंकारकार्ये इन्द्रियगणे निद्रया आपन्नेऽभिभूते सति पिण्डस्थो जीवः केवलं मनोमात्रेण मायां स्वप्नरूपां प्राप्नोति, ततो मनसि लीने सति नष्टचेतनःन्मृत्युं वा मृत्युतुल्यां सुषुप्तिं वा प्राप्नोति यथा तद्वदेनानार्थदृक् द्वैताभिनिवेशी विक्षेपं लयं च प्राप्नोति। यथा प्राज्ञसंपर्काद्विश्वस्य भोगक्षयलक्षणो भ्रंश एवमनात्मसंपर्कादात्मनोऽपि स्वरूपभ्रंश इति भावः ।। ३ ।। द्वैतासत्यतया स्तुतिनिन्दयोर्निर्विषयत्वं प्रपञ्चयति सार्धैः षड्भिः – किं भद्रमिति । अवस्तुनो द्वैतस्य मध्ये किं भद्रं किं वाऽभद्रं कियद्भद्रं कियद्वाऽभद्रमित्यर्थः । अवस्तुत्वमेवाह – वाचेति बाह्येन्द्रियोपलक्षणम् । वाचा उदितमुक्तं चक्षुरादिभिश्च यद् दृश्यं तदनृतमिति ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – On the senses (evolved form the Rājasika ego) being overpowered with sleep the soul imprisoned in the body enters the realm of Māyā (illusion in the shape of the dream state in the event of the mind continuing to function) and having lost its consciousness (of the body and its surroundings later on when the mind too becomes torpid) reaches the state of deep sleep (which has been likened to death). So does the man perceiving many things (instead of the one real substance) experience distraction on coming in contact with the pleasures of sense and later on finds himself sunk into the depths of ignorance (3). In the midst of duality, which is unreal (the question does not arise) what is good (praiseworthy) and what is evil (depreciable) and to what extent a (particular) thing is good or bad; (for) whatever is expressed through word (i.e., whatever is grasped through the senses) as well as whatever is contemplated with the mind is false (4).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “ध्यात” derived from the verbal root √ध्यै (ध्यै चिन्तायाम् १. १०५६).

(1) ध्या + क्त । By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows. By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) ध्या + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

Note: 8-2-43 संयोगादेरातो धातोर्यण्वतः is stopped by 8-2-57 न ध्याख्यापॄमूर्च्छिमदाम् – When following the verbal root √ध्यै (ध्यै चिन्तायाम् १. १०५६) or √ख्या (ख्या प्रकथने २. ५५) or √पॄ (पॄ पालनपूरणयोः ३. ४) or √मूर्च्छ् (मूर्च्छाँ मोहनसमुच्छ्राययोः १. २४०) or √मद् (मदीँ हर्षे ४. १०५), the तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is not replaced by a नकार:।

“ध्यात” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) ध्यात + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) ध्यात + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(5) ध्यातम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-57 न ध्याख्यापॄमूर्च्छिमदाम् (used in step 2) been used in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-43 संयोगादेरातो धातोर्यण्वतः (referred to in step 2), the काशिका says – संयोगादेरिति किम्? यातः। Please explain.

3. Further commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-43 संयोगादेरातो धातोर्यण्वतः, the काशिका says – आत इति किम्? च्युतः। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-110 ऋदुपधाच्चाकॢपिचृतेः been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I have never thought about this subject.” Paraphrase to passive.

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the आदेश: (substitute) ‘असुँङ्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः been used in the verses?

जीर्णः mNs

Today we will look at the form जीर्णः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.13.24.

तस्यापि तव देहोऽयं कृपणस्य जिजीविषोः । परैत्यनिच्छतो जीर्णो जरया वाससी इव ।। १-१३-२४ ।।
गतस्वार्थमिमं देहं विरक्तो मुक्तबन्धनः । अविज्ञातगतिर्जह्यात्स वै धीर उदाहृतः ।। १-१३-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तस्यापि तवैवं दैन्यमनुभवतोऽपि परैति क्षीयते । अत एव धीरो भवेति ।। २४ ।। किंलक्षणो धीर इत्यपेक्षायामाह । गतस्वार्थं यशोधर्मादिशून्यम् । मुक्तबन्धनस्त्यक्ताभिमानः । क्व गत इत्यविज्ञाता गतिर्यस्य । धीरः । प्राप्तदुःखस्य स्वयं सहनेन मुक्तिप्राप्तेः ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – How foolish of you that you still desire to live ! Like tattered clothes, your age-worn body will nonetheless leave you, however reluctant you may be to cast it off (24). Therefore, free from worldly attachment and shaking off all bondage, he who drops this body, which is no longer of any use to him, away from and unknown to his kith and kin, he alone is spoken of as wise (25).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “जीर्ण” is derived from the verbal root √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५).

(1) जॄ + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) जॄ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति – An affix which is either a गित् (has गकार: as a इत्) or कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) does not take the augment इट् when following the verbal root √श्रि (श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४) or any verbal root which ends in a उक् letter. 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(3) जिर् + त । By 7-1-100 ॠत इद्धातोः – The ending ॠकारः of a verbal root that has the अङ्ग-सञ्ज्ञा is substituted by इकारः। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(4) जिर् + न । By 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows a रेफ: or a दकार: and also in place of a दकार: which immediately precedes a निष्ठा affix.
Thus there are two cases:
(i) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a रेफ:। In this case the तकार: is replaced by a नकार:।
(ii) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a दकार:। In this case the तकार: (of the निष्ठा affix) as well as the दकार: (of the धातु:) is replaced by a नकार:।

(5) जीर् + न । By 8-2-77 हलि च – The penultimate (उपधा) इक् letter of a verbal root ending in a वकारः or रेफः is made दीर्घः, when followed by a हल् (consonant.)

(6) जीर्ण । By 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे, when a नकारः follows a रेफः or a षकारः in a single पदम्, it gets णकारः as a replacement.

“जीर्ण” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(7) जीर्ण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) जीर्ण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) जीर्णः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः (used in step 4) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. In the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति states – श्रिञ एकाच उगन्ताच्च गित्कितोरिण् न । Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – उगन्तात्किम्? शयितः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति , the काशिका says – कितीति किम्? श्रयिता। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-89 एत्येधत्यूठ्सु been used in the verses? (We have not discussed this सूत्रम् in the class but have seen it in a prior post.)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why do you always wear worn out clothes?” Use √वस् (वसँ आच्छादने २. १३) for ‘to wear.’

 

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः apply between वाससी + इव?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the commentary?

कीर्णानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form कीर्णानाम् mGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.119.4.

रमेयं कथया ते तु दृढं मधुरभाषिणि । रविरस्तं गतः श्रीमानुपोह्य रजनीं शिवाम् ।। २-११९-३ ।।
दिवसं प्रति कीर्णानामाहारार्थं पतत्रिणाम् । सन्ध्याकाले निलीनानां निद्रार्थं श्रूयते ध्वनिः ।। २-११९-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – I would have been delighted much to hear (more of) your story, O sweet-speaking lady ! Ushering in the charming night, the glorious sun has, however, sunk below horizon (3). The noise is being heard of birds scattered about during the daytime in search of food and roosted (in their nests) at eventide for sleep (4).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “कीर्ण” is derived from the verbal root √कॄ (कॄ विक्षेपे ६. १४५).

(1) कॄ + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) कॄ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति – An affix which is either a गित् (has गकार: as a इत्) or कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) does not take the augment इट् when following the verbal root √श्रि (श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४) or any verbal root which ends in a उक् letter. 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(3) किर् + त । By 7-1-100 ॠत इद्धातोः – The ending ॠकारः of a verbal root that has the अङ्ग-सञ्ज्ञा is substituted by इकारः। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(4) किर् + न । By 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows a रेफ: or a दकार: and also in place of a दकार: which immediately precedes a निष्ठा affix.
Thus there are two cases:
(i) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a रेफ:। In this case the तकार: is replaced by a नकार:।
(ii) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a दकार:। In this case the तकार: (of the निष्ठा affix) as well as the दकार: (of the धातु:) is replaced by a नकार:।

(5) कीर् + न । By 8-2-77 हलि च – The penultimate (उपधा) इक् letter of a verbal root ending in a वकारः or रेफः is made दीर्घः, when followed by a हल् (consonant.)

(6) कीर्ण । By 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे, when a नकारः follows a रेफः or a षकारः in a single पदम्, it gets णकारः as a replacement.

“कीर्ण” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(7) कीर्ण + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “आम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) कीर्ण + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix “आम्” takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix “आप्”। By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the ‘नुँट्’-आगम: joins at the beginning of “आम्”।

(9) कीर्ण + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) कीर्णानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term “नाम्”।

Questions:

1. In the first twenty-five verses of Chapter Two of the गीता can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् in which 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः as well as 8-2-77 हलि च has been used (as in this example)?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः the काशिका says – निष्ठेति किम्? कर्ता। Please explain.

3. Some manuscripts of the रामायणम् have ‘रमेऽहं कथया’ (while others have ‘रमेय कथया’) instead of ‘रमेयं कथया’। What could be the reason for this?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

5. Where has 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Collect all these scattered jewels.” Use the verbal root √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५) for ‘to collect.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘यक्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the augment ‘नुँम्’ in the form ‘श्रीमान्’ (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्रीमत्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)। Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्रीमत्’ ends in the affix ‘मतुँप्’।

छिन्नम् mAs

Today we will look at the form छिन्नम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.18.

तव राम यदि श्रद्धा युध्यस्व धैर्यमुद्वह । हित्वा वा मच्छरैश्छिन्नं देहं स्वर्याहि मां जहि ।। १०-५०-१९ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
न वै शूरा विकत्थन्ते दर्शयन्त्येव पौरुषम् । न गृह्णीमो वचो राजन्नातुरस्य मुमूर्षतः ।। १०-५०-२० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अच्छेद्यदेहोऽसाविति स्वयमेव मत्वाऽपरितोषात्पक्षान्तरमाह – यद्वा मां जहीति ।। १९ ।। यथाश्रुतार्थग्रहणेन भगवत उत्तरम् – न शूरा इति । विकत्थन्ते श्लाघन्ते ।। २० ।।

Gita Press translation – If there is an itching in you (for a combat), O Balarāma, offer battle to me and have patience (to see the result.) Casting off your body torn with my shafts, (either) ascend to heaven or slay me (if you can.) (19) The glorious Lord replied : The valiant never brag; they only exhibit their manliness. We do not (however) take your words to heart, O king, full of grief as you are (over the death of your son-in-law, Kaṁsa) and about to die (20).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “छिन्न” is derived from the verbal root √छिद् (छिदिँर् द्वैधीकरणे ७. ३). The “इर्” at the end of the verbal root gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by the वार्तिकम् “इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या” and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(1) छिद् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) छिद् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.

(3) छिन् + न । By 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows a रेफ: or a दकार: and also in place of a दकार: which immediately precedes a निष्ठा affix.

Thus there are two cases:
(i) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a रेफ:। In this case the तकार: is replaced by a नकार:।
(ii) The तकार: of a निष्ठा affix is immediately following a दकार:। In this case the तकार: (of the निष्ठा affix) as well as the दकार: (of the धातु:) is replaced by a नकार:।

“छिन्न” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे/नपुंसकलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(4) छिन्न + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । Note: नपुंसकलिङ्गे we have to also apply 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement.

(5) छिन्नम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘छिन्न’ been used (as part of a compound) in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Up to which सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी does the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘निष्ठातो नः’ run from 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः (used in step 3)?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह रदाभ्यामित्यनेन तकारो विशेष्यते, न निष्ठा, तेन चरितमुदितमित्यत्र न, तकारस्येटा व्यवहितत्वात्। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ईकारादेश: in the form गृह्णीम:?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“By reading the Geeta all my doubts have been removed (cut.)” Paraphrase to “By reading of the Geeta all my doubts have been removed (cut.)” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पठन’ for ‘reading.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I wonder who cut this tree.” Paraphrase to “I wonder by whom this tree was cut.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘नु’ to express the meaning ‘I wonder.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

2. In the verses, can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has been elided?

ज्ञातः mNs

Today we will look at the form ज्ञातः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.9.36.

ऋषिमाद्यं न बध्नाति पापीयांस्त्वां रजोगुणः । यन्मनो मयि निर्बद्धं प्रजाः संसृजतोऽपि ते ।। ३-९-३५ ।।
ज्ञातोऽहं भवता त्वद्य दुर्विज्ञेयोऽपि देहिनाम् । यन्मां त्वं मन्यसेऽयुक्तं भूतेन्द्रियगुणात्मभिः ।। ३-९-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अनुग्रहमेवाह – ऋषिमिति चतुर्भिः । यत् यतस्ते मनो मयि निर्बद्धम् ।। ३५ ।। यद्यस्माद्भूतैरिन्द्रियैर्गुणैः सत्त्वादिभिरात्मनाऽहंकारेण चायुक्तं मन्यसे ।। ३६ ।।

Gita Press translation – The wicked Rajoguṇa (the principle of activity) will not bind you, the first seer, since your mind will remain attached to Me even while you are occupied with the work of evolving the creation (35). Today you have come to know Me, even though living beings find it difficult to know Me; for you regard Me as free from the five elements, the Indriyas, the Guṇas and the inner sense (36).

Note: The translation has been done in the active voice – “Today you have come to know Me.” The literal translation would be “Today I have come to be known by you.”

“ज्ञात” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३).

(1) ज्ञा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) ज्ञा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

“ज्ञात” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) ज्ञात + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) ज्ञात + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) ज्ञातः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञात’ been used?

2. Can you recall three सूत्राणि (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-99 उपसर्गे च संज्ञायाम् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकार-लोप: in the form ‘बद्ध’?

5. Which कृत्य-प्रत्यय: is used to form the प्रतिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञेय’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one knew this secret.” Paraphrase to “This secret was not known by anyone.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रहस्य’ (in the neuter) for ‘secret.’

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the verses?

गृहीतः mNs

Today we will look at the form गृहीतः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.3.12.

तं शम्बरः कामरूपी हृत्वा तोकमनिर्दशम् । स विदित्वात्मनः शत्रुं प्रास्योदन्वत्यगाद्गृहम् ।। १०-५५-३ ।।
तं निर्जगार बलवान्मीनः सोऽप्यपरैः सह । वृतो जालेन महता गृहीतो मत्स्यजीविभिः ।। १०-५५-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स प्रसिद्धः कामशत्रुः शम्बरस्तमात्मनः शत्रुं विदित्वा हृत्वा समुद्रे प्रास्य प्रक्षिप्य गृहमगादिति ।। ३ ।। निर्जगार गिलितवान् ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Coming to know Pradyumna to be his (future) enemy, the demon Śambara, who could assume any form at will, carried off the babe (from the lying-in-chamber) while it was not yet ten days old and, casting it into the sea, went home (3). A mighty fish swallowed it and the former too was alongwith others enmeshed in a huge net by fishermen (4).

“गृहीत” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१ ).

(1) ग्रह् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) ग्रह् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। This allows 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च to apply in the next step.

(3) ग् ऋ अ ह् + त । By 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च – The verbal roots √ग्रह (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१), √ज्या (ज्या वयोहानौ ९. ३४), √वय् (वयँ गतौ १. ५४७), √व्यध् (व्यधँ ताडने ४. ७८), √वश् (वशँ कान्तौ २. ७५), √व्यच् (व्यचँ व्याजीकरणे ६. १३), √व्रश्च् (ओँव्रश्चूँ छेदने ६. १२), √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९) and √भ्रस्ज् (भ्रस्जँ पाके ६. ४) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित् or a ङित्।

(4) गृह् + त । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(5) गृह् + इट् त । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment “इट्”। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(6) गृह् + इ त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) गृह् + ई त । By 7-2-37 ग्रहोऽलिटि दीर्घः – When prescribed after the monosyllabic verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१), the augment “इट्” gets elongated, but not if the affix लिँट् follows.

“गृहीत” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(8) गृहीत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) गृहीत + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(10) गृहीतः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृहीत’ been used (as part of a compound) in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Why doesn’t the affix ‘क्त’ take the augment ‘इट्’ in the form ‘वृत’?

3. Can you spot an affix ‘क’ in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the form अगात् derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the जकारादेश: in the form निर्जगार?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān saw Sītā surrounded by ogresses.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उपधा-दीर्घ: (elongation of the penultimate letter) in the from कामरूपी (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कामरूपिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमन्तात्‌ been used in the verses?

उक्तवान् mNs

Today we will look at the form उक्तवान् mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.11.38.

दीयतां नगरी लङ्का पूर्वं रक्षोगणोषिता । मयात्र यदनुष्ठेयं तन्ममाचक्ष्व सुव्रत ।। ७-११-३६ ।।
ब्रह्मर्षिस्त्वेवमुक्तोऽसौ विश्रवा मुनिपुङ्गवः । प्राञ्जलिं धनदं प्राह शृणु पुत्र वचो मम ।। ७-११-३७ ।।
दशग्रीवो महाबाहुरुक्तवान्मम संनिधौ । मया निर्भर्त्सितश्चासीद्बहुशोक्तः सुदुर्मतिः ।। ७-११-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Let Laṅkā, which was previously occupied by the Rākṣasas, be given back to me. Please tell me, O pious one, what I should do in this connection.” (35-36) Being addressed thus, Viśravā, the Brahmarṣi, the best of sages, told the lord of wealth, who was standing with joined palms, My son, listen to my words. (37) Daśagrīva, the mighty-armed, said the same thing in my presence also. I rebuked him and exhorted that highly evil-minded fellow in several ways.(38)

The प्रातिपदिकम् “उक्तवत्” is derived from the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८).

(1) वच् + क्तवतुँ । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ is used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) as per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ – The affixes designated as कृत् are used to denote the agent.

(2) वच् + तवत् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The affix “क्तवतुँ” is a कित्। This allows 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति to apply in the next step. Note: Here 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) उ अ च् + तवत् । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति – The verbal roots √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) and also the nine verbal roots beginning with √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित्।

(4) उच् + तवत् । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(5) उक् + तवत् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः – The consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

“उक्तवत्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) उक्तवत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: “उक्तवत्” ends in the affix “क्तवतुँ”। Thus it ends in “अतुँ” and is also उगित् (since the उकार: in “क्तवतुँ” is a इत्)। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 as well as the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 to apply below.

(7) उक्तवत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) उक्तवात् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the “सुँ” affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in “अतुँ” or a base that ends in “अस्” which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(9) उक्तवा नुँम् त् + स् । By 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः – A non-verbal base with an उक् (“उ”, “ऋ”, “ऌ”) as a marker and the verbal base “अञ्चुँ” whose नकारः has taken elision takes the नुँम् augment when followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix. Note: The प्रत्यय: “स्” has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य

(10) उक्तवा न् त् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) उक्तवान्त् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् “उक्तवान्त्” gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(12) उक्तवान् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (तकार:) of the पदम् takes लोपः।
Note: After this, 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य does not apply because of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्।

Questions:

1. Where has the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ (used in step 1) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Where else (besides 3-2-102) in the अष्टाध्यायी does the सूत्रम् ‘निष्ठा’ occur?

3. Can you spot an affix ‘क’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ईकारादेश: in the form दीयताम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I did not say anything.”

Advanced question:

1. Derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उषित’ (feminine ‘उषिता’ used in the verses as part of the compound रक्षोगणोषिता) from the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) by adding the affix ‘क्त’। You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied in the class):
7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट् – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ or a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) always takes the augment इट् when following the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) or √क्षुध् (क्षुधँ बुभुक्षायाम् ४. ८७).

Easy questions:

1. Why does the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः (which is an earlier सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 7-1-70) apply (in step eight) before 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः (in step nine)?

2.Where else (besides in उक्तवान्) has the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used in the verses?

ईप्सितम् nNs

Today we will look at the form ईप्सितम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.3.12.

ग्रहं ग्रहीष्ये सोमस्य यज्ञे वामप्यसोमपोः । क्रियतां मे वयो रूपं प्रमदानां यदीप्सितम् ।। ९-३-१२ ।।
बाढमित्यूचतुर्विप्रमभिनन्द्य भिषक्तमौ । निमज्जतां भवानस्मिन्ह्रदे सिद्धविनिर्मिते ।। ९-३-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
असोमपोः सोमपानरहितयोरपि वां युवयोः सोमस्य ग्रहं सोमपूर्णं पात्रं ग्रहीष्ये दास्यामीति । युवां सोमेन यक्ष्य इत्यर्थः । ‘ऐन्द्रवायवं गृह्णाति’ इत्यादिषु द्रव्यदेवतासंबन्धानुपपत्त्या गृह्णातेर्यागपर्यवसायित्वात् ।। १२ ।। बाढमित्यभिनन्द्य भवानस्मिन्निमज्जतामित्यूचतुः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – “I shall bear you both a cup of that juice, even though (I know) you are not entitled to a potation of the Soma juice in a sacrifice. Be pleased (therefore) to make my age and exterior such as may be coveted by young women.” (12) Gladly accepting his prayer with the word “Amen” the two foremost physicians (of the gods) said to the Brāhmaṇa (the sage Cyavana) “Plunge you into this pool created by the Siddhas.”(13)

“ईप्सित” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from desiderative form of the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६).

The सन्नन्त-धातुः “ईप्स” is derived as follows:

(1) आप् + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

(2) आप् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) ईप् + स । By 7-4-55 आप्ज्ञप्यृधामीत्‌ – “ई” is substituted for the root-vowel of the following verbal roots when followed by the affix सन् beginning with a सकारः (i.e. no augment “इट्”) –
i) √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६)
ii) √ज्ञप् (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३ (in the causative) , ज्ञपँ ज्ञानज्ञापनमारणतोषणनिशाननिशामनेषु मिच्च १०. ११८)
iii) √ऋध् (ऋधुँ वृद्धौ ४. १६०, ऋधुँ वृद्धौ ५. २७).

(4) ई प्स प्स । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix “सन्”/”यङ्” which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(5) ईप्स । By 7-4-58 अत्र लोपोऽभ्यासस्य – The reduplicate (अभ्यासः) is elided under the circumstances mentioned in the foregoing सूत्राणि 7-4-54 सनि मीमाघुरभलभशकपतपदामच इस् to 7-4-57 मुचोऽकर्मकस्य गुणो वा।

“ईप्स” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now, we derive the कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् “ईप्सित” as follows:

(6) ईप्स + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(7) ईप्स + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) ईप्स + इट् त । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment “इट्”। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(9) ईप्स + इ त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) ईप्स् + इ त । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

“ईप्सित” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(11) ईप्सित + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) ईप्सित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(13) ईप्सितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गीत’ (feminine ‘गीता’) derived?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः (used in step 6), the काशिका says – एवकारः कर्तुरपकर्षणार्थः। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a सम्प्रसारणम् in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the दीर्घादेश: in the form ग्रहीष्ये?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-28 रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I will give you what you want.” Paraphrase to “I will give you that which is desired to be obtained by you.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with the first ‘you’ (in ‘give you.’)

Easy Questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used?

2. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युष्मद्’ been used in the verses?

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