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योधाः mNp

Today we will look at the form योधाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.59.15

तान्पीठमुख्याननयद्यमक्षयं निकृत्तशीर्षोरुभुजाङ्घ्रिवर्मणः । स्वानीकपानच्युतचक्रसायकैस्तथा निरस्तान्नरको धरासुतः ।। १०-५९-१४ ।।
निरीक्ष्य दुर्मर्षण आस्रवन्मदैर्गजैः पयोधिप्रभवैर्निराक्रमत् । दृष्ट्वा सभार्यं गरुडोपरि स्थितं सूर्योपरिष्टात्सतडिद्घनं यथा । कृष्णं स तस्मै व्यसृजच्छतघ्नीं योधाश्च सर्वे युगपच्च विव्यधुः।। १०-५९-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कृत्तानि शीर्षादीनि येषां तान् ।। १४ ।। शतघ्नीं शक्तिविशेषम् ।। १५ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Lord sent them (all), Pītha and others, to the abode of Death, their heads, thighs, arms, feet and armors having been lopped off or split open. Enraged to see (from the top of the fortress) the generals of his army having been killed by the discus (Sudarśana) and arrows of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the immortal Lord,) the demon Naraka, son of Mother Earth, rushed forth with (an army of) sea-born elephants (whose descent was traceable from Airāvata, the king of elephants, the carrier of Indra.) Perceiving Śrī Kṛṣṇa with His spouse (Satyabhāmā) mounted on Garuḍa (the king of birds) like a cloud united with lightning and appearing above the sun, Naraka hurled at Him the javelin known by the name of Śataghnī; (nay), all his warriors too hit Him all at once (14-15).

युध्यत इति योधः।

“योध” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √युध् (युधँ सम्प्रहारे ४. ६९).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “योध” is derived as follows:

(1) युध् + अच् । By वार्तिकम् (under 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः) – अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः – The affix ‘अच्’ may be used after any verbal root (to denote the agent/doer of the action.)

(2) युध् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: “अ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) योध् + अ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च – When a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix or a आर्धधातुकम् affix, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases:
i) The अङ्गम् ends in the augment ‘पुक्’। or
ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

‘योध’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(1) योध + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) योध + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “जस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) योधास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) योधाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the word योधाः been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says पचादिराकृतिगणः । “4-4-143 शिवशमरिष्टस्य करे”, “5-2-35 कर्मणि घटोऽठच्” इति सूत्रयोः करोतेर्घटेश्चाच्प्रयोगात् । अच्प्रत्यये परे यङ्लुग्विधानाच्च। Please explain.

3. Why is निराक्रमत् a आर्ष-प्रयोगः?

4. Can you spot an affix “श” in the verses?

5. Where does the सूत्रम् 6-1-37 न सम्प्रसारणे सम्प्रसारणम् find application in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Duryodhana said to his (own) warriors – “All of you should protect Bhīṣma.” Use the pronoun “स्व” for “own.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which अव्ययम् in the verses has been translated to “all at once.”

2. Where has this अव्ययम् (answer to question above) been used in the गीता?

मन्त्री mNs

Today we will look at the form मन्त्री mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.62.14.

सा तत्र तमपश्यन्ती क्वासि कान्तेति वादिनी । सखीनां मध्य उत्तस्थौ विह्वला व्रीडिता भृशम् ।। १०-६२-१३ ।।
बाणस्य मन्त्री कुम्भाण्डश्चित्रलेखा च तत्सुता । सख्यपृच्छत्सखीमूषां कौतूहलसमन्विता ।। १०-६२-१४ ।।
कं त्वं मृगयसे सुभ्रूः कीदृशस्ते मनोरथः । हस्तग्राहं न तेऽद्यापि राजपुत्र्युपलक्षये ।। १०-६२-१५ ।।

तं कान्तमपश्यन्ती सा उत्तस्थौ ।। १३ ।। ततः किं वृत्तं तत्राह – बाणस्येति ।। १४ ।। हस्तग्राहं भर्तारम् ।। १५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Not finding him there (on opening her eyes), she got up in a state of excitement saying, “Where are you, my darling!” in the midst of her girl companions, and felt greatly abashed (13). Kumbhāṇḍa was the minister of Bāṇa and Citralekhā, his daughter. Full of curiosity she, a (constant) companion of Ūṣā, questioned her friend (thus) : – (14) O princess of charming eyebrows! whom are you looking for and what is the nature of your longing? I do not find till today anyone who has espoused you (15).

मन्त्रयत इति मन्त्री।

मन्त्री is derived from the verbal root √मन्त्र् (मत्रिँ गुप्तपरिभाषणे १०. १९९).
The इकारः at the end of “मत्रिँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। Therefore this धातुः is an इदित्।

(1) मत्रिँ = मत्र् । 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(2) म नुँम् त्र् । By 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः – A धातुः which has इकारः as an इत् gets the नुँम्-आगमः। As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the नुँम् augment attaches itself after the last vowel (the अकार:) of the अङ्गम् “मत्र्”।

(3) मन्त्र् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) मन्त्र् + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् – The affix णिच् is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः।

(5) मन्त्रि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

“मन्त्रि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

(6) मन्त्रि + णिनिँ । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix “ल्यु” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “नन्दि”; the affix “णिनिँ” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “ग्रहि”; and the affix “अच्” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “पच्”। Note: The word मन्त्री is listed in the नन्द्यादि-गण:।

(7) मन्त्रि + इन् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) मन्त्र् + इन् = मन्त्रिन् । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

‘मन्त्रिन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(9) मन्त्रिन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) मन्त्रिन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) मन्त्रीन् + स् । By 6-4-13 सौ च – The penultimate letter of terms ending in “इन्”, “हन्”, “पूषन्” and “अर्यमन्” is lengthened when the सुँ-प्रत्यय: – which is not सम्बुद्धि: – follows. See easy question 2.

(12) मन्त्रीन् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। “मन्त्रीन्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्

(13) मन्त्री । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending नकार: of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where has a इदित् (one which has इकारः as a इत्) verbal root (like “मत्रिँ”) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. In the धातु-पाठः, in the चुरादि-गणः can you find a गणसूत्रम् (which we have seen in a prior comment) by which only आत्मनेपदम् may be used in the form मृगयसे?

3. Where has the affix “तृच्” been used in the commentary?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “औ”-आदेशः in the form तस्थौ?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am a resident of India.” For “resident” use a प्रातिपदिकम् listed in the ग्रह्यादि-गणः।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the students in this class are enthusiastic.” For “enthusiastic” use a प्रातिपदिकम् listed in the ग्रह्यादि-गणः।

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot an augment नुँट् in the verses?

2. In step 11 why do we need 6-4-13 सौ च? Why not just use 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ?

विभीषणस्य mGs

Today we will look at the form विभीषणस्य mGs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.89.5.

ततो विस्फारयामास महद्धनुरवस्थितः । उत्ससर्ज च तीक्ष्णाग्रान्राक्षसेषु महाशरान् ।। ६-८९-३ ।।
ते शराः शिखिसंस्पर्शा निपतन्तः समाहिताः । राक्षसान्द्रावयामासुर्वज्राणीव महागिरीन् ।। ६-८९-४ ।।
विभीषणस्यानुचरास्तेऽपि शूलासिपट्टिशैः । चिच्छिदुः समरे वीरान्राक्षसान्राक्षसोत्तमाः ।। ६-८९-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Standing firm, he now stretched his mighty bow and loosed long sharp-pointed arrows against the ogres (3). Falling thick and fast, the aforesaid shafts, which impinged like fire, tore the ogres to pieces as thunderbolts would cleave mighty mountains (4). The well-known followers of Vibhīṣaṇa, too, who were the foremost of ogres, rent asunder the heroic ogres in combat with their pikes, swords and sharp-edged spears (5).

विशेषेण भीषयतीति विभीषणः।

“विभीषण” is a causative form derived from the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) with the उपसर्गः “वि”।

(1) भी + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) भी + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) भी षुँक् + इ । By 7-3-40 भियो हेतुभये षुक् – The verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) – when it ends in a ईकार: – takes the “षुँक्”-आगम: when the “णि”-प्रत्यय: follows and the हेतु: (ref. 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च) is directly the cause of the fear.

(4) भी ष् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

“भीषि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

The प्रातिपदिकम् “विभीषण” is derived as follows:

(5) वि भीषि + ल्यु । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix “ल्यु” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “नन्दि”; the affix “णिनिँ” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “ग्रहि”; and the affix “अच्” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “पच्”। Note: The word विभीषणः is listed in the नन्द्यादि-गण:।

(6) वि भीषि + यु । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) वि भीषि + अन । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes “यु” and “वु” are substituted respectively by “अन” and “अक”।

(8) वि भीष् + अन । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

(9) विभीषण । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्।

(10) विभीषण + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(11) विभीषणस्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः, since the “ङस्”-प्रत्यय: is following an अङ्गम् ending in an अकार:, it is replaced by “स्य”। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire ङस्-प्रत्यय: is replaced.

Questions:

1. Where has the affix “ल्यु” been used in the last five verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-40 भियो हेतुभये षुक् the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says भी ई इतीकार: प्रश्लिष्यते। ईकारान्तस्य भिय: षुक् स्याण्णौ हेतुभये। Explaining this वृत्तिः the तत्त्वबोधिनी says तेन आत्वपक्षे भापयते इत्येव न त्वत्र षुगित्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-40 भियो हेतुभये षुक् the काशिका says हेतुभय इति किम्? कुञ्चिकयैनं भाययति। Please explain.

4. From which verbal root is the form द्रावयामासुः derived?

5. Can you spot an augment “तुँक्” in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Arjuna said to Śrī Kṛṣṇa “Having withdrawn this frightful form show me your gentle one.” Use the अव्ययम् “संहृत्य” for “having withdrawn.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकारादेशः in the form राक्षसान्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

रमण mVs

Today we will look at the form रमण mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.30.40.

ततो गत्वा वनोद्देशं दृप्ता केशवमब्रवीत् । न पारयेऽहं चलितुं नय मां यत्र ते मनः ॥ १०-३०-३८ ॥
एवमुक्तः प्रियामाह स्कन्ध आरुह्यतामिति । ततश्चान्तर्दधे कृष्णः सा वधूरन्वतप्यत ॥ १०-३०-३९ ॥
हा नाथ रमण प्रेष्ठ क्वासि क्वासि महाभुज । दास्यास्ते कृपणाया मे सखे दर्शय सन्निधिम् ॥ १०-३०-४० ॥

कामिनां दैन्यं दर्शयति – एवमुक्त इति । अखण्डितत्वमाह – ततश्चेति । तस्यां स्कन्धारोहोद्यतायामन्तर्हित इत्यर्थः ॥ ३९ ॥ अनुतापमाह – हा नाथेति ॥ ४० ॥

Gita Press translation – Then, reaching a certain part of the forest, she arrogantly said to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Ruler even of Brahmā and Lord Śiva,) “I am unable to walk (any more); carry me wherever it pleases you.” (38) Requested thus, the Lord replied to His lady-love, “Mount my shoulder (then)!” After that, (however, as soon as the lady tried to mount His shoulder,) Śrī Kṛṣṇa disappeared and the said lady repented (in the following words): – (39) “My most beloved lord, O delighter of my soul, where are you, where are you, O mighty-armed one, pray reveal your presence, O friend, to me, your wretched servant.”(40)

रमत इति रमयतीति वा रमणः।

“रमण” may be derived as a causative form or a non-causative form, from the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९). In the present context the causative form is more appropriate.

The derivation of the causative form is as follows:

(1) रम् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) रम् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) राम् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

By the गणसूत्रम् जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च (in the धातुपाठ:, below the गणसूत्रम् “घटादयो मित:”) – The verbal roots √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५), √क्नस् (क्नसुँ ह्वरणदीप्त्योः ४. ७), √रञ्ज् (रञ्जँ रागे १. ११५४) as well as any verbal root ending in “अम्” are considered to be “मित्” (having मकार: as a इत्)।

(4) रमि । By 6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः, a short vowel (ह्रस्व:) is substituted in place of the penultimate letter (vowel) of a verbal root which is मित् (has मकार: as an इत्) and is followed by the causative affix “णि”।
“रमि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

The प्रातिपदिकम् “रमण” is derived as follows:

(5) रमि + ल्यु । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix “ल्यु” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “नन्दि”; the affix “णिनिँ” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “ग्रहि”; and the affix “अच्” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “पच्”। Note: The word रमण: is listed in the नन्द्यादि-गण:। See question 2.

(6) रमि + यु । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) रमि + अन । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes “यु” and “वु” are substituted respectively by “अन” and “अक”।

(8) रम् + अन । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

(9) रमण । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धिः

(10) (हे) रमण + सुँ (सम्बुद्धिः) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The affix “सुँ” has the सम्बुद्धि-सञ्ज्ञा here by 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः

(11) (हे) रमण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The सकार: which is an एकाल् (single letter) प्रत्यय: gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(12) (हे) रमण । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः

Note: To derive ‘रमण’ as a non-causative form we add the affix ‘ल्यु’ (by 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः) directly to the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९). After अनुबन्ध-लोपः (by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः) and the substitution ‘अन’ (by 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ), the remaining steps are the same as step 9 onwards shown above.

Questions:

1. In the first ten verses of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् (used as a part of a compound) ending in the affix ‘ल्यु’?

2. Commenting on 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः the काशिका says – नन्दिग्रहपचादयश्च न धातुपाठतः सन्निविष्टा गृह्यन्ते। किं तर्हि? नन्दनरमणेत्येवमादिषु प्रातिपदिकगणेष्वपोद्धृत्य प्रकृतयो निर्दिश्यन्ते। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “आम्”-आदेशः in the form आरुह्यताम्?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a sage by the name Ramaṇa.” Use the अव्ययम् “नाम” for “by the name.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who is brave? The man who conquers cupid.” For “cupid” use a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix “ल्यु”। Use the verbal root √जि (जि अभिभवे १. १०९६) with the उपसर्गः “परा” for “to conquer.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the augment “आट्” in the form दास्याः?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् for which the प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is the same as the द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्?

गायकाः mNp

Today we will look at the form गायकाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.83.30

उन्नीय वक्त्रमुरुकुन्तलकुण्डलत्विड्गण्डस्थलं शिशिरहासकटाक्षमोक्षैः । राज्ञो निरीक्ष्य परितः शनकैर्मुरारेरंसेऽनुरक्तहृदया निदधे स्वमालाम् ॥ १०-८३-२९ ॥
तावन्मृदङ्गपटहाः शङ्खभेर्यानकादयः । निनेदुर्नटनर्तक्यो ननृतुर्गायका जगुः ॥ १०-८३-३० ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
उरवः कुन्तला यस्मिन्, कुण्डलयोस्त्विषो ययोस्ते गण्डस्थले यस्मिंस्तच्च तच्च । शिशिरः संतापहरो हासो येषु तैः कटाक्षमोक्षैरपाङ्गमोक्षणविलासैः । अनुरक्तं हृदयं यस्याः साऽहम् ॥ २९ ॥ ३० ॥

Gita Press translation – Thick tresses of hair overhung my face and brilliant ear-rings added luster to my cheeks. Lifting up my face I glanced at the kings on all sides with enlivening smiles and sidelong looks and with a heart over-flowing with love gently placed the necklace round the neck of my Lord (29). The moment I placed the necklace round His neck, clay tomtoms, tabors, conchs, drums and kettledrums were sounded; male and female dancers began to dance, and songsters began to sing (in various tunes) (30).

“गायक” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √गै (गै शब्दे १. १०६५)

(1) गा + ण्वुल् । By 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ – The affixes “ण्वुल्” and “तृच्” may be used after a verbal root. By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows.
Note: As per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌, the affixes “ण्वुल्” and “तृच्” are used in the sense of the agent of the action.

(2) गा + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: “वु” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) गा + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes “यु” and “वु” are substituted respectively by “अन” and “अक”।

(4) गा युक् + अक । By 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः – A अङ्गम् ending in a आकार: takes the augment युक् when followed by the affix चिण् or a कृत् affix which is either ञित् (has ञकार: as a इत्) or णित् (has णकार: as a इत्)।

As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “युक्”-आगम: joins at the end of the अङ्गम् “गा”।

(5) गायक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The उकार: in “युक्” is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

“गायक” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(1) गायक + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) गायक + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “जस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) गायकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) गायकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the affix “ण्वुल्” been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says णकारो वृद्ध्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः the तत्त्वबोधिनी says ञ्णितीति किम्? पानीयम्। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the आकार-लोपः in the form निदधे? Where else has this सूत्रम् been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot a अभ्यास-लोपः in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who is the best singer among all of you?”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the गुणादेशः in the form उरवः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-104 ओसि च been used in the commentary?

कर्ता mNs

Today we will look at the form कर्ता mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.69.40

अनुजानीहि मां देव लोकांस्ते यशसाप्लुतान् । पर्यटामि तवोद्गायँल्लीलां भुवनपावनीम् ॥ १०-६९-३९ ॥
श्रीभगवानुवाच
ब्रह्मन्धर्मस्य वक्ताहं कर्ता तदनुमोदिता । तच्छिक्षयँल्लोकमिममास्थितः पुत्र मा खिदः ॥ १०-६९-४० ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
त्वन्मानुष्यनाट्येन मुह्याम्यतो मां प्रस्थापयेत्याह – अनुजानीहीति ॥ ३९ ॥ तत्तस्माल्लोकं शिक्षयन्निमं धर्ममास्थितो नतु तत्त्वतः । हे पुत्र, मा खिदः मोहं मा प्राप्नुहीति ॥ ४० ॥

Gita Press translation – Pray, give me leave, O Lord, to go, so that I may move about the (fourteen) worlds flooded with Your glory, singing loudly the story of Your pastimes, which is capable of purifying the (whole) world (39). The Lord replied: O sage, I am not only the Teacher of Dharma, but I practice it Myself, and lend countenance to (those who practice) it. I follow the path of Dharma in order to teach the world (by My example.) (Therefore,) do not get perplexed, My son, (at the sight of this My Yogamāyā.)

“कर्तृ” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

(1) कृ + तृच् । By 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ – The affixes “ण्वुल्” and “तृच्” may be used after a verbal root. Note: As per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌, these affixes are used in the sense of the agent of the action.

(2) कृ + तृ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: “कृ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात् stops the “इट्”-आगम: (for “कृ”) which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।

(3) कर् + तृ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

“कर्तृ” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) कर्तृ + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The प्रत्यय: “सुँ” has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य।

(5) कर्तृ + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) कर्त् अनँङ् + स् । By 7-1-94 ऋदुशनस्पुरुदंसोऽनेहसां च, “ऋत्” (short “ऋ”) ending terms, as well as the terms “उशनस्”, “पुरुदंसस्” and “अनेहस्” get the “अनँङ्” replacement when the “सुँ” suffix, that is not सम्बुद्धिः, follows. As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च , only the ending ऋकार: of “कर्तृ” is replaced.

(7) कर्त् अन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) कर्तान् + स् । By 6-4-11 अप्-तृन्-तृच्-स्वसृ-नप्तृ-नेष्टृ-त्वष्टृ-क्षत्तृ-होतृ-पोतृ-प्रशास्तॄणाम् – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix that is not a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the penultimate vowel of “अप्”, of words ending in affixes “तृन्” and “तृच्” and of the words “स्वसृ”, “नप्तृ”, “नेष्टृ”, “त्वष्टृ”, “क्षत्तृ”, “होतृ”, “पोतृ” and “प्रशास्तृ” is elongated.

(9) कर्तान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात् सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”।

Now “कर्तान्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्।

(10) कर्ता । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending नकार: of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where has the form कर्ता been used in Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सू्त्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says तृचश्चकारस्तु ‘तुरिष्ठेमेयस्सु’ ‘तुश्छन्दसि’ इत्यादौ सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः। Please explain.

3. (In a different context) could कर्ता be a तिङन्तं पदम्?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ककारादेशः in the form वक्ता?
i) 7-3-52 चजोः कु घिण्ण्यतोः ii) 8-2-30 चोः कुः iii) 8-2-62 क्विन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः iv) 8-2-41 षढोः कः सि

5. Where has लुँङ् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
A wise man never thinks that “I am the doer.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-60 तोर्लि been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the मकारादेशः in the form इमम्?

कृत्यम् nAs

Today we will look at the form कृत्यम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.23.22.

देहं विपन्नाखिलचेतनादिकं पत्युः पृथिव्या दयितस्य चात्मनः । आलक्ष्य किञ्चिच्च विलप्य सा सती चितामथारोपयदद्रिसानुनि ॥ ४-२३-२१ ॥
विधाय कृत्यं ह्रदिनीजलाप्लुता दत्त्वोदकं भर्तुरुदारकर्मणः । नत्वा दिविस्थांस्त्रिदशांस्त्रिः परीत्य विवेश वह्निं ध्यायती भर्तृपादौ ॥ ४-२३-२२ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पृथिव्याः पत्युः । दुहितृत्वं तु तस्या देवतारूपेण । विपन्नं नष्टमखिलं चेतनादिकं यस्मिंस्तथाभूतं देहमालक्ष्य तं देहं चितामारोपयत् ॥ २१ ॥ कृत्यं तत्कालोचितं विधाय ह्रदिन्या जले आप्लुता स्नाता सती भर्तृरुदकं दत्त्वा दिव्यन्तरिक्षे स्थितान्देवान्नत्वा वह्निं त्रिः प्रदक्षिणीकृत्य ॥ २२ ॥

Gita Press translation – Finding the body of the sovereign of the entire globe and her own beloved lord bereft of consciousness and all other signs (of life,) that virtuous lady wept for a while and then placed it on a pyre on the ridge of the hill (21). Having performed the rites (suited to the occasion,) she bathed in the waters of a stream; and after offering water (through her hollowed palms) to (the spirit of) her husband, who had performed noble deeds, and bowing to the divinities who stood in the heavens (witnessing the scene from their aerial cars,) she thrice went round the (funeral) fire clockwise (as a mark of respect to her departed husband) and entered into it, contemplating on the feet of her lord (22).

‘कृत्य’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

(1) कृ + क्यप् । By 3-1-120 विभाषा कृवृषोः – The two verbal roots √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and √वृष् (वृषुँ सेचने हिंसासङ्क्लेशनयोश्च १. ८०३) optionally take the affix ‘क्यप्’। Note: In the other case the affix ‘ण्यत्’ is used as per 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌। See question 2.

(2) कृ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The affix ‘य’ gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।
Note: The affix ‘क्यप्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। Therefore, 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुणादेशः which may have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।

(3) कृ तुँक् + य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel (in this case the letter ‘ऋ’) takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the letter ‘ऋ’।

(4) कृत्य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

‘कृत्य’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(5) कृत्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) कृत्य + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) कृत्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृत्य’ been used (as a part of a compound)?

2. What would be the final form in this example if the affix ‘ण्यत्’ were to be used?

3. What would be an alternate form for आरोपयत्?

4. Can you spot an affix ‘णल्’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You ought not to make haste.” Paraphrase to passive. Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्वरा’ for ‘haste.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me what should be done in this situation.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवस्था’ for ‘situation.’

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-73 इकोऽचि विभक्तौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उकारादेशः in the form पत्युः?

वध्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form वध्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.5.34

इत्युक्त्वोपरतं पुत्रं हिरण्यकशिपू रुषा । अन्धीकृतात्मा स्वोत्सङ्गान्निरस्यत महीतले ॥ ७-५-३३ ॥
आहामर्षरुषाविष्टः कषायीभूतलोचनः । वध्यतामाश्वयं वध्यो निःसारयत नैरृताः ॥ ७-५-३४ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
निरस्यत चिक्षेप ॥ ३३ ॥ अमर्षोऽसहनं तेन सहितया रुषाविष्टो व्याप्तः । कषायीभूते आताम्रे लोचने यस्य । हे नैरृता राक्षसाः ॥ ३४ ॥

Gita Press translation – Hiraṇyakaśipu, whose intellect had been blinded by wrath, threw his son (Prahrāda) from his lap to the ground as soon as the latter stopped after uttering the aforesaid words (33). Possessed by indignation and anger, and with blood-shot eyes he exclaimed, “Let this boy be killed at once, deserving of death as he is! Turn him out, O Rākṣasas!” (34)

“वध्य” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. २).

(1) वध + यत् । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-1-97 अचो यत्‌) हनो वा वध च – The verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) optionally takes the affix “यत्” and simultaneously √हन् is substituted by “वध”। Note: In the other case the affix “ण्यत्” is used as per 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌। See question 2.

(2) वध + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: “य” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) वध्य । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

“वध्य” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) वध्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) वध्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) वध्यः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the गीता where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “वध्य” been used (as a part of a compound)?

2. What would be an alternate form for वध्यः?

3. In 1-3 (third quarter of Chapter One) of the अष्टाध्यायी, can you find a वार्तिकम् which justifies the use of आत्मनेपदम् in the form निरस्यत?

4. Why is निरस्यत a आर्षप्रयोगः?

5. Can you spot an affix “णिच्” in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Vibhīṣaṇa said to Rāvaṇa “A messenger ought never to be killed.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “दूत” for “messenger.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which अव्ययम् in the verses has been translated to “at once”?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-125 प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् been used in the commentary?

भोज्येषु nLp

Today we will look at the form भोज्येषु nLp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.77.15

ननु भोज्येषु पानेषु वस्त्रेष्वाभरणेषु च । प्रवारयति सर्वान् नस्तन्नः कोऽद्य करिष्यति ॥ २-७७-१५ ॥
अवदारणकाले तु पृथिवी नावदीर्यते । विहीना या त्वया राज्ञा धर्मज्ञेन महात्मना ॥ २-७७-१६ ॥
पितरि स्वर्गमापन्ने रामे चारण्यमाश्रिते । किं मे जीवितसामर्थ्यं प्रवेक्ष्यामि हुताशनम् ॥ २-७७-१७ ॥

Gita Press translation – Indeed you made us all (the four brothers) have our best choice out of (a large variety of) eatables, drinks, articles of wearing apparel and ornaments (placed before us.) (Since you have disappeared from our midst) who will discharge this function now? (15) (How strange that) this earth, even though it has been deprived of you, its high-souled ruler, who knew what is right, is not riven even at a time when it should have been riven! (16) My father having reached heaven and  Śrī Rāma having retired to the forest, what energy has been left in me to survive? I shall (accordingly) enter the fire (17). 

“भोज्य” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √भुज् (रुधादि-गणः, भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः, धातु-पाठः # ७. १७).

(1) भुज् + ण्यत् । By 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌ – The affix ण्यत् may be used following any verbal root which either ends in a ऋ-वर्णः (ऋकारः or ॠकारः) or in a consonant.

(2) भुज् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: “य” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) भोज्य । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च – When a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases:
i) The अङ्गम् ends in a “पुक्”-आगमः। or
ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 2.

“भोज्य” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्

(4) भोज्य + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) भोज्य + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) भोज्येसु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – The ending “अ” of a अङ्गम् changes to “ए” when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(7) भोज्येषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the affix “ण्यत्” been used?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-52 चजोः कु घिण्ण्यतोः apply in the form “भोज्य”?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-77 हलि च been used in the verses?

4. Which verbal root has been used in the form प्रवेक्ष्यामि?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“These fruits are not fit to be eaten.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Kaikeyī said to Bharata “You ought to enjoy the kingdom.” Paraphrase to passive “The kingdom ought to be enjoyed by you.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the गुणादेशः in the form पितरि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

वाच्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form वाच्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.72.20

किं दुर्मर्षं तितिक्षूणां किमकार्यमसाधुभिः । किं न देयं वदान्यानां कः परः समदर्शिनाम् ॥ १०-७२-१९ ॥
योऽनित्येन शरीरेण सतां गेयं यशो ध्रुवम् । नाचिनोति स्वयं कल्पः स वाच्यः शोच्य एव सः ॥ १०-७२-२० ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
नन्विदं कामयामह इति विशेषो निर्दिश्यताम्, अन्यथा यस्य स्वयंकल्पः पुत्रादेर्वियोगो दुःसहः स कथं देयः, तथा राजमण्डनं किरीटाद्यदेयं यत्तद्भिक्षुभ्यः कथं देयम्, तथातिरम्यं रत्नाभरणादि पुत्रादियोग्यं कथं परस्मै देयमिति चेदत आहुः – किं दुर्मर्षमित्यादि । अथ दृष्टान्तत्वेनार्थान्तरमाहुः – किमकार्यमिति । यथाऽसाधूनामकार्यं नास्ति तथा तितिक्षूणां दुर्मर्षं दुःसहं नास्ति । वदान्यानामत्युदाराणामदेयं नास्ति । समदर्शिनां परश्च नास्ति । अतः किं विशेषनिर्देशेनेत्यर्थः ॥ १९ ॥ किंच अर्थिने धीरेण मुद्गलादिवत्प्राणा अपि न वञ्चनीया इत्याशयेनाहुः – योऽनित्येनेति । नाचिनोति न संपादयति स वाच्यः स निन्द्यः ॥ २० ॥

Gita Press translation – O king, a forbearing person can bear anything; the wicked can do anything; (in fact, there is nothing which he will regard as prohibited); and a generous donor will not hesitate to give away anything. And none is foreign to a man of undifferentiating outlook (19). If a capable man, through his mortal body, does not earn enduring fame, worthy of being sung by men of virtue, he deserves to be pitied and censured (20).

“वाच्य” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८)

(1) वच् + ण्यत् । By 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌ – The affix ण्यत् may be used following any verbal root which either ends in a ऋ-वर्णः (ऋकारः or ॠकारः) or in a consonant.

(2) वच् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: “य” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) वाच्य । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

Note:7-3-52 चजोः कु घिण्ण्यतोः is stopped by the 7-3-67 वचोऽशब्दसंज्ञायाम् – When followed by the affix “ण्यत्”, the चकारः of a अङ्गम् consisting of the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८, as well as the substitute “वच्” which comes in place of √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) by 2-4-53 ब्रुवो वचिः) – when not used as a noun meaning speech/sentence – does not take a कवर्गादेशः (a letter of the क-वर्गः as a substitute.)

“वाच्य” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) वाच्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) वाच्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) वाच्यः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “वाच्य” been used in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-67 वचोऽशब्दसंज्ञायाम् the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says शब्दाख्यायां तु वाक्यम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an affix “सन्” in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-65 ईद्यति been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You ought not to speak in this manner.” Paraphrase to passive. Use the अव्ययम् “इत्थम्” for “in this manner.”

Advanced Question:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-52 चजोः कु घिण्ण्यतोः apply in the form “शोच्य”? Note: Commenting on the सू्त्रम् 7-3-52 the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says निष्ठायामनिट इति वक्तव्यम्। Please explain.

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot an affix “णिङ्” in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्मै”-आदेशः in the form परस्मै (used in the commentary)?

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