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ऊचुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form ऊचुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.29.31

श्रीगोप्य ऊचुः
मैवं विभोऽर्हति भवान्गदितुं नृशंसं सन्त्यज्य सर्वविषयांस्तव पादमूलम् ।
भक्ता भजस्व दुरवग्रह मा त्यजास्मान् देवो यथादिपुरुषो भजते मुमुक्षून् ।। १०-२९-३१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
नृशंसं क्रूरम् । हे दुरवग्रह स्वछन्द, तव पादमूलं भक्ताः सेवितवतीरस्मान्भजस्व मा त्यजेति ।

Gita Press translation – The Gopīs said : “You ought not to speak so cruelly to us. Kindly take in Your service us, that have sought the soles of Your feet renouncing all (other) objects, (even) as Lord Nārāyaṇa (the most ancient Person) accepts (the worship of) those that seek Liberation. (Pray,) do not abandon us, O Lord who are (so) hard to win over!”

ऊचुः is derived from the धातुः √वच् (अदादि-गणः, वचँ परिभाषणे, धातु-पाठः # २. ५८)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √वच् has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the चकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the धातुः √वच् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the वच्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So वच्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) वच् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) वच् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वच् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) वच् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “उस्”-प्रत्यय: is कित्।

(5) उ अ च् + उस् । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति, the verbal roots √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) and also the nine verbal roots beginning with √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित्।
Note: 6-1-15 applies before 6-1-8 as per the following परिभाषा – “सम्प्रसारणं तदाश्रितं च कार्यं बलवत्” – A सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) operation, as well as an operation (6-1-108) which is dependent on it, possesses greater force (takes precedence over other operations which are simultaneously applicable.)

(6) उच् + उस् । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च, when a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(7) उच् उच् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(8) उ उच् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) ऊचुस् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः। See question 5.

(10) ऊचुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which chapter of the गीता has √वच् (अदादि-गणः, वचँ परिभाषणे, धातु-पाठः # २. ५८) been used with लिँट्?

2. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the “व”-आदेश: in भजस्व?

3. In the verse, can you spot a word in which the “हि”-प्रत्यय: has taken the लुक् elision?

4. Where has 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ been used for the first time in the verse? Where has it been used for the last time?

5. Why didn’t 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ apply (instead of 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः) in step 9? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

6. With the help of some words from the verse, construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
All the cowherds said to Sri Krishna – “O Lord, you ought to protect us.”
Use the अव्ययम् “रक्षितुम्” for “to protect.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for मा + एवम् = मैवम्? Which one for विभो + अर्हति = विभोऽर्हति? Which one for the नकारादेश: in मुमुक्षून् (प्रातिपदिकम् “मुमुक्षु”, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)?

चक्रुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चक्रुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 12.8.24

ननृतुस्तस्य पुरतः स्त्रियोऽथो गायका जगुः ।
मृदङ्गवीणापणवैर्वाद्यं चक्रुर्मनोरमम् ।। १२-८-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका – No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “The damsels danced and the songsters sang, while other Gandharvas played charmingly on clay tomtoms, lutes and small drums before him.”

Note: “played” is the translation for “वाद्यं चक्रु:”।

चक्रुः is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is झि।

(1) कृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) कृ + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

Note: “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

Note: If 6-1-77 इको यणचि (which is a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य ) would apply here (before 6-1-8) there would be no अच् (vowel) left in the धातु: and 6-1-8 would become inapplicable.

By 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel that is the cause for reduplication. (Hence 6-1-8 applies first.)
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution (in this case रेफ: in place of ऋकार:) until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution (in this example in step 9) does takes place.

(5) कृ कृ + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) कर् कृ + उस् । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows.
By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(7) चर् कृ + उस् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(8) च कृ + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) चक्रुस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(10) चक्रुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a word in Chapter One of the गीता wherein the विवक्षा (as in this example) is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्?

2. Where else (besides in चक्रु:) has 7-4-66 उरत्‌ been used in the verse?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “इयँङ्”-आदेश: in the form स्त्रिय: (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्त्री”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

4. Where has 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sita saw an amazing deer sporting in the forest.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अद्भुत” for “amazing”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “मृग” for “deer”, the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “क्रीडत्” (ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:) for “sporting” and (a लिँट् form of) √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) for “to see.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In order to deceive Sita, the deer imitated Sri Rama’s voice.” Use the अव्ययम् “वञ्चयितुम्” for “in order to deceive” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “स्वर” for “voice.” Use (a लिँट् form) of √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) with the उपसर्ग: “अनु” for “to imitate.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्य”-आदेश: in the form तस्य (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

आजग्मुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form आजग्मुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.13.25

मैत्रेय उवाच
अङ्गोऽश्वमेधं राजर्षिराजहार महाक्रतुम् ।
नाजग्मुर्देवतास्तस्मिन्नाहूता ब्रह्मवादिभिः ।। ४-१३-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अभावी पुत्रः काम्यकर्मणा बलादापादितो न सुखाय भवेदिति द्योतयन्नङ्गस्य पुत्रोत्पत्तिक्रममाह – अङ्ग इत्यादिना ।

Gita Press translation – Maitreya said : “The royal sage Añga (once) performed a great horse-sacrifice, in which the gods did not appear (to take their share of offerings) even when invoked by the sages (who were great exponents of the Vedas).”

आजग्मुः is derived from the धातुः √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √गम् has one इत् letter – the ऌकार: following the मकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the धातुः √गम् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the गम्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So गम्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) गम् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) गम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) गम् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) गम् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) गम् गम् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि

(6) ग गम् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(7) ज गम् + उस् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(8) ज ग् म् + उस् । By 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि, the उपधा (penultimate letter – ref. 1-1-65 अलोऽन्त्यात् पूर्व उपधा) of the verbal roots √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७), √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २), √जन् ([जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४], [जनँ जनने ३. २५]), √खन् (खनुँ अवदारणे १. १०२०) and √घस् (घसॢँ अदने १. ८१२) is elided, when followed by an अजादि-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित् with the exclusion of the अङ्-प्रत्ययः।
Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence, “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-98 to apply.

(9) जग्मुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

“आङ्” (ending ङकार: is a इत्) is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
आ + जग्मुः = आजग्मुः।

Questions:

1. Where has लिँट् been used (not counting उवाच) for the last time in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “यासुट्”-आगम: in the commentary?

4. Where has the धातु: √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाच?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Hearing (having heard) the sound of Sri Krishna’s flute, all the gopis came to the bank of the Yamuna.” Use the अव्ययम् “श्रुत्वा” for “having heard”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “ध्वनि” for “sound”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “वेणु” for “flute” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तीर” for “bank.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उपधा-दीर्घ: (ईकार:) in the form अभावी (प्रातिपदिकम् “अभाविन्”, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?

2. Where has 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the commentary?

प्रययौ 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form प्रययौ 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.75.39

स व्रीडितोऽवग्वदनो रुषा ज्वलन्निष्क्रम्य तूष्णीं प्रययौ गजाह्वयम् ।
हाहेति शब्दः सुमहानभूत्सतामजातशत्रुर्विमना इवाभवत् ।
बभूव तूष्णीं भगवान्भुवो भरं समुज्जिहीर्षुर्भ्रमति स्म यद्दृशा ।। १०-७५-३९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
भुवो भरं भारं जिहीर्षुरिति । अद्य सम्पादितेन कलहबीजेन कुरूणां संहारं करिष्यामीति मत्वेति । किंच यस्य दृशा दृष्टिमात्रेण दुर्योधनो भ्रमति स्म भ्रान्तिं प्राप । मयमाया तु निमित्तमात्रम् । स भूभारहरणबीजं दुर्योधनस्य भ्रमं भीमादिहास्येन च तस्य पराभवं विधाय तूष्णीमासीदित्यर्थः ।

Gita Press translation “Duryodhana was abashed at this discomfiture. Burning with rage, and with his face cast down, he silently left the Hall and immediately departed for Hastināpura. The incident raised a cry of dismay from all good people and Yudhiṣṭhira felt perturbed over as it were. Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, however, kept quiet over the incident, intent as He was upon relieving the burden of the earth. In fact, it was His enchanting look which threw Duryodhana into confusion and brought about the incident.”

ययौ is derived from the धातुः √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √या-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √या-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √या-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) या + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) या + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) या + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा here. This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) या + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) या + औ । By 7-1-34 आत औ णलः, the “णल्”-प्रत्यय: is substituted by a औकार:, when it follows a धातु: that ends in a आकार:।

(6) या या + औ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case वृद्धि: by 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case “औ”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 8 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(7) य या + औ । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(8) ययौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

“प्र” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
प्र + ययौ = प्रययौ।

Questions:

1. The सूत्रम् 7-1-34 आत औ णलः (used in step 5 of the example) is used only once in the गीता (Chapter One.) Can you find the word in which it is used?

2. What would be an alternate form for भ्रमति (लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम्) used in the verse? (Note: भ्रमति may be derived from either भ्रमुँ चलने १. ९८५ or भ्रमुँ अनवस्थाने ४. १०२).
i. भ्राम्यति
ii. भ्रम्यति
iii. Either भ्राम्यति or भ्रम्यति
iv. Neither भ्राम्यति nor भ्रम्यति

3. Where has लँङ् been used in the verse?

4. Where has लँङ् been used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having killed Ravana, Sri Rama returned to Ayodhya, along with Sita and Lakshmana.” Use the अव्ययम् “हत्वा” for “having killed” and use (a लिँट् form) of √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४) with the उपसर्ग: “प्रति” for “to return.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verse, can you spot two words in which the टा-प्रत्यय: has been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उपधा-दीर्घ: (elongation of the penultimate letter) in the form सुमहान्? Which one in भगवान्?

जज्वलुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form जज्वलुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.3.5

चुक्षुभुर्नद्युदन्वन्तः सद्वीपाद्रिश्चचाल भूः।
निपेतुः सग्रहास्तारा जज्वलुश्च दिशो दश ।। ७-३-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीकाद्वीपैरद्रिभिश्च सहिता भूश्चलिता।

Gita Press translation “The rivers and the oceans swelled; the earth with its (seven) main divisions and mountains shook; stars and planets shot out (from their respective positions) and (all) ten directions flamed forth.”

जज्वलुः is derived from the धातुः √ज्वल् (भ्वादि-गणः, ज्वलँ दीप्तौ धातु-पाठः #१.९६५)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ज्वल्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the लकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the √ज्वल्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √ज्वल्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √ज्वल्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) ज्वल् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) ज्वल् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ज्वल् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) ज्वल् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively. See easy question 2.

(5) ज्वल् ज्वल् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) ज ज्वल् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) जज्वलुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. The word भूः used in the verse is the प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “भू”। Where is this प्रातिपदिकम् used in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. The word दिश: used in the verse is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “दिश्”। In which सूत्रम् (which we have studied) does पाणिनि: specifically mention the प्रातिपदिकम् “दिश्”?

3. Where has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“By his own luster, Lord Vamana shone like fire.” Use the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् (pronoun) “स्व” for “his own”, use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तेजस्” for “luster” and use (a लिँट् form of) √ज्वल् (भ्वादि-गणः, ज्वलँ दीप्तौ धातु-पाठः #१.९६५) for “to shine.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“For the protection of the world, Lord Siva drank the poison.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “रक्षण” for “to protect” and (a लिँट् form of) √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४) for “to drink.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the लुक् elision of the “जस्”-प्रत्यय: in the form दश (प्रातिपदिकम् “दशन्”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

2. Why doesn’t the ending सकार: of the “उस्”-प्रत्यय: get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् (and take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)?

विचुक्षुभुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form विचुक्षुभुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.8.32

सटावधूता जलदाः परापतन्ग्रहाश्च तद्दृष्टिविमुष्टरोचिषः।
अम्भोधयः श्वासहता विचुक्षुभुर्निर्ह्रादभीता दिगिभा विचुक्रुशुः ।। ७-८-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दैत्यवधव्यग्रस्य नृहरेराटोपमाह द्वाभ्याम् । सटाभिरवधूताः प्रकम्पिता जलदा मेघाः परापतन् व्यशीर्यन्त । (अनेन ये मेघान्‌तरिता देवास्ते स्पष्टं पश्यन्त्वित्याज्ञां दत्तवानित्यर्थः)। तस्य दृष्ट्या विमुष्टं रोचिर्येषां ग्रहाणां ते तिरस्कृतप्रभा अभवन्निति शेषः । दिगिभा दिग्गजाः ।।

Gita Press translation “Shaken by His hair, clouds began to scatter away and the planets were robbed of their lustre by His (very) glances. Tossed by His breath, the oceans grew turbulent and, frightened by His roar, the elephants guarding the quarters trumpeted.”

विचुक्षुभुः is derived from the धातुः √क्षुभ् (क्र्यादि-गणः, क्षुभँ सञ्चलने ९. ५५) or √क्षुभ् (दिवादि-गणः, क्षुभँ सञ्चलने ४. १५४).
[Note: There is also a धातु: √क्षुभ् (क्षुभँ सञ्चलने १. ८५४) in the भ्वादि-गणः। But it cannot be used to derive the form चुक्षुभुः because it is आत्मनेपदी।]

In the धातु-पाठः, this √क्षुभ्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the भकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus this √क्षुभ्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, this √क्षुभ्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So this √क्षुभ्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is झि।

(1) क्षुभ् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) क्षुभ् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) क्षुभ् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) क्षुभ् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) क्षुभ् क्षुभ् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) कु क्षुभ् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(7) चु क्षुभ् + उस् By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Note: “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् – A लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च from applying.

(8) चुक्षुभुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

“वि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
वि + चुक्षुभुः = विचुक्षुभुः ।

Questions:

1. Where is लिँट् used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in चुक्षुभुः) has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः (used in step 7 of the example) been used in the verse?

3. In the commentary, in a तिङन्तं पदम् can you spot a धातु: which ends in a ॠकार:?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उकारादेश: in the word पश्यन्तु used in the commentary?

5. Which word used in the commentary is an alternate form for ब्रवीति?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Ravana fell on the ground, the entire earth, along with the mountains and the oceans, shook.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √क्षुभ् (क्र्यादि-गणः, क्षुभँ सञ्चलने ९. ५५) for “to shake” and (a लिँट् form of) √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) for “to fall.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सकल” (feminine “सकला”) for “entire” and use the अव्यये यदा/तदा for “when” and “then.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the एकारादेश: (letter “ए” as a substitute) in the word येषाम् (used in the commentary)?

उपजहार 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form उपजहार 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.22.14

तस्मै बलिर्वारुणपाशयन्त्रितः समर्हणं नोपजहार पूर्ववत् ।
ननाम मूर्ध्नाश्रुविलोललोचनः सव्रीडनीचीनमुखो बभूव ह ।। ८-२२-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स्वकृताहंकारादिरूपापराधस्मरणेन सव्रीडं नीचीनमधोमुखं यस्य सः ।।

Gita Press translation “Bound with the cords of Varuṇa, Balī could not offer due worship to him as he used to do before. He (simply) bowed with his head (bent low), his eyes confounded with tears (brought by the thought of the insolent language used by him with reference to the Lord), and remained with his head hung down evidently with shame.”

जहार is derived from the धातुः √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६)

In the धातु-पाठः, the हृ-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the हृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the हृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “हृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, हृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) हृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) हृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) हृ + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) हृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) हृ हृ + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
See question 2.

(7) हर् हृ + अ । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) ह हृ + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) झ हृ + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(10) झ हर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
See question 3.

(11) झहार । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(12) जहार । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“उप” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
उप + जहार = उपजहार।

Questions:

1. Where has √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the last ten verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Why didn’t 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः (which a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8) apply before 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य in step 6 of the example?

3. Instead of applying 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः (in step 10) followed by 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः (in step 11), which single सूत्रम् could have been applied to get the same result?

4. Can you spot a “वुक्”-आगम: in the verse?

5. Where else (besides in जहार) has 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having deceived Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Ravana abducted Sita.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६) with the उपसर्ग: “अप” for “to abduct (take away.)” Use the अव्ययम् “वञ्चयित्वा” for “having deceived.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्मै”-आदेश: in the form तस्मै?

पपु: 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पपुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.30.12

ततस्तस्मिन्महापानं पपुर्मैरेयकं मधु ।
दिष्टविभ्रंशितधियो यद्द्रवैर्भ्रश्यते मतिः ।। ११-३०-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पीयत इति पानम्मैरेयकं मदिराविशेषम् । मधु सुरसम् । दिष्टेन दैवेन विभ्रंशितधियः । नह्यन्यथा तस्मिन्स्थाने तदुचितमिति भावः । यद्रवैर्यस्य द्रवै रसैः ।।

Gita Press translation “Then, their judgement having been vitiated by (an evil) destiny, they drank there a highly intoxicating and delicious drink known by the name of Maireyaka, by the filtrates of which the intellect is perverted.”

पपु: is derived from the धातुः √पा (पा पाने, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १०७४)

In the धातु-पाठः, the पा-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the पा-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So पा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is झि।

(1) पा + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पा + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) पा + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) पा पा + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
See question 2.

(6) प पा + उस् । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(7) प प् उस् । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।
Note: As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “उस्”-प्रत्यय: is कित्। This allows 6-4-64 to apply.

(8) पपुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you find a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter One of the गीता, wherein 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च has been used? (Actually, can you find two of them?)

2. Why didn’t 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च (which a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8) apply before 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य in step 5 of the example?

3. Where has 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the ईकारादेश: in the form पीयते in the commentary?

5. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च, the काशिका says “आर्धधातुके इत्येव, यान्ति।” Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Guarded by Sri Krishna, the cows drank the clear water of the Yamuna.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “रक्षित” (feminine “रक्षिता”) for “guarded” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रसन्न” for “clear.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a लोप: (elision) of a रेफ: (letter “र्”) in the commentary?

बिभेद 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form बिभेद 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.77.15

शाल्वः शौरेस्तु दोः सव्यं सशार्ङ्गं शार्ङ्गधन्वनः ।
बिभेद न्यपतद्धस्ताच्छार्ङ्गमासीत्तदद्भुतम् ।। १०-७७-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दोर्बाहुम्।

Gita Press translation “In the meantime Śālva hit Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the left arm with an arrow. The Śārṅga bow which was being held by that arm fell from Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s hand. It was a wonderful feat on the part of Śālva.”

बिभेद is derived from the धातुः √भिद् (रुधादि-गणः, भिदिँर् विदारणे, धातु-पाठः # ७. २)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “भिदिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √भिद्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √भिद्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √भिद् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √भिद्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) भिद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) भिद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भिद् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) भिद् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) भिद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) भिद् भिद् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) भि भिद् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) भि भेद । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) बिभेद । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Questions:

1. Where has 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च (used in the last step of this example) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “ईट्”-आगम: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verse?

4. In which word in the verse has 6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमन्तात्‌ been used?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Ravana pierced Lakshmana on the chest with a missile.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “शक्ति” for “missile” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “वक्षस्” for “chest.” Use the same धातु: as in the example for “to pierce.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rejected by Indra, Trisanku fell from heaven.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “निराकृत” for “rejected” and use (a लिँट् form of) √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) for “to fall.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-62 झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् been used in the verse?

2. The छकार: (letter “छ्”) used in the verse has come as a आदेश: (substitute) in place of which letter?

चुक्रोश 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चुक्रोश 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.34.6

स चुक्रोशाहिना ग्रस्तः कृष्ण कृष्ण महानयम् ।
सर्पो मां ग्रसते तात प्रपन्नं परिमोचय ।। १०-३४-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका – No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Seized by the python, he cried, “Kṛṣṇa, O enchanter of all, this huge serpent is devouring me, O darling! (Pray), deliver me, who have sought you as my refuge.”

चुक्रोश is derived from the धातुः √क्रुश् (भ्वादि-गणः, क्रुशँ आह्वाने रोदने च, धातु-पाठः # १. ९९२)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √क्रुश् has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the शकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the धातुः √क्रुश् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the क्रुश्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So क्रुश्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) क्रुश् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) क्रुश् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) क्रुश् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) क्रुश् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) क्रुश् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) क्रुश् क्रुश् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) कु क्रुश् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) चु क्रुश् + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) चुक्रोश । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

Questions:

1. Where has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः (used in step 8 of the example) been used in the last twenty verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “अय्”-आदेश: in the form अयम् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्”, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

3. Can you spot a णिच्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. Where has 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Lakshmana cut off Surpanakha’s nose and ears, she screamed.” Use the अव्यये यदा/तदा। Use a (लिँट् form of) √छिद् (छिदिँर् द्वैधीकरणे ७. ३) for “to cut off”, use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “नासिका” for “nose” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “कर्ण” for “ear.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A huge serpent devoured many cowherd boys.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्” for “huge” and use the प्रातिपदिकम् “गोपाल” in the masculine for “cowherd boy.” Use a word from the verse for “serpent” and use (a लिँट् form) of √खाद् (खादृँ भक्षणे १. ५१) for “to devour.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “ना”-आदेश: in the form अहिना (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “अहि”, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

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